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The rapid spread of the use of new 24-color karyotyping techniques has preceded their standardization. This is best documented by the fact that the exact resolution limits have not yet been defined. Indeed, it is shown here that a substantial proportion of interchromosomal aberrations will be missed by all multicolor karyotyping systems currently in use. We(More)
Prodynorphin, the precursor of the dynorphin opioid peptides, has been shown to play an important role in several aspects of human diseases and complex traits, e.g., drug abuse, epilepsy, and mood disorders. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the 5' control region of the human prodynorphin gene and to relate these polymorphisms to(More)
Morphine-induced place preference was demonstrated recently in wild-type mice, whereas this conditioned behaviour was not observed in µ-opioid receptor-deficient mice. In the present study, we investigated locomotor effects of subcutaneously (s.c.) injected morphine as well as intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) morphine self-administration in µ-opioid(More)
Morphine and the endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin exert neuromodulatory as well as immunomodulatory effects, which are transduced by mu-opioid receptors. In this report we show that stimulation with interleukin-4 induces mu-opioid receptor transcripts in human primary blood cells (T cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes), immune cell lines (Raji,(More)
 The interaction of phloretin with single lipid bilayers on a spherical support and with multilamellar vesicles was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results indicated that phloretin interacts with the lipid layer and changes its structural parameters. In DSC experiments, phloretin in its neutral(More)
Although micrometastatic cancer cells in lymph nodes can be detected by monoclonal antibodies against epithelial or tumor-associated antigens, it remains unclear whether these cells are precursors of overt metastases or shedded tumor cells with a limited life span. Here we used esophageal cancer as a model to evaluate the prognostic significance and(More)
Opioids and their receptors are key players in a cross-talk between the nervous and immune systems. For example, the endogenous opioid system is activated during inflammation as a physiological feedback mechanism to attenuate inflammatory pain. Herein, we report that in primary human T lymphocytes, Raji B cells, U937 monocytes, primary human(More)
The possible involvement of the dopamine D1 receptor subtype in mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP) of the Schaffer collateral-commissural input of CA1 neurones was investigated using D1-deficient mutant mice. In transversal hippocampus slices from mice lacking the D1 receptor a normal post-tetanic and short-term potentiation could be induced after(More)
Opiates function as immunomodulators, partly by their effects on T cells. Opioids act via mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors, among which the mu-type is of particular interest, because morphine-like opioids preferentially bind to it. Here we report that mu-opioid receptor mRNA was induced after CD3/28-mediated activation of primary human T lymphocytes(More)
Various immunomodulatory effects of opioids are mediated by mu opioid receptors. While in resting T lymphocytes their expression is repressed, mu opioid receptors are induced by interleukin-4 via the transcription factor STAT6. Here we investigated mechanisms underlying this induction in human Jurkat T cells. Although interleukin-4 induced a rapid(More)