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Tropical forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle, as they store a large amount of carbon (C). Tropical forest deforestation has been identified as a major source of CO2 emissions, though biomass loss due to fragmentation--the creation of additional forest edges--has been largely overlooked as an additional CO2 source. Here, through the(More)
Representing human decisions is of fundamental importance in agent-based models. However, the rationale for choosing a particular human decision model is often not sufficiently empirically or theoretically substantiated in the model documentation. Furthermore, it is difficult to compare models because the model descriptions are often incomplete, not(More)
Agent-based models are helpful to investigate complex dynamics in coupled humanenatural systems. However, model assessment, model comparison and replication are hampered to a large extent by a lack of transparency and comprehensibility in model descriptions. In this article we address the question of whether an ideal standard for describing models exists.(More)
1. Spatio-temporal fire regimes are likely to shift with changes in land use and climate. Such a shift in the disturbance regime has been proposed from recent reconstructions of the regional fire history in the Mediterranean-type woodlands and shrublands of Western Australia which suggest that fire was much more frequent before 1930 (local fire intervals of(More)
Coexistence in fire-prone Mediterranean-type shrublands has been explored in the past using both neutral and niche-based models. However, distinct differences between plant functional types (PFTs), such as fire-killed vs resprouting responses to fire, and the relative similarity of species within a PFT, suggest that coexistence models might benefit from(More)
Deforestation in the tropics is not only responsible for direct carbon emissions but also extends the forest edge wherein trees suffer increased mortality. Here we combine high-resolution (30 m) satellite maps of forest cover with estimates of the edge effect and show that 19% of the remaining area of tropical forests lies within 100 m of a forest edge. The(More)
Tropical forests are highly diverse ecosystems, but within such forests there can be large patches dominated by a single tree species. The myriad presumed mechanisms that lead to the emergence of such monodominant areas is currently the subject of intensive research. We used the most generic of these mechanisms, large seed mass and low dispersal ability of(More)
Forest dynamics in New Zealand are shaped by catastrophic, landscape-level disturbances (e.g. volcanic eruptions, windstorms and fires). The long return-intervals of these disturbances, combined with the longevity of many of New Zealand's tree species, restrict empirical investigations of forest dynamics. In combination with empirical data (e.g.(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin K1 (VK1) reverses the effects of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). The literature shows that the bioavailability from solutions might be higher than that from tablets, possibly resulting in different effects. OBJECTIVES To compare the bioavailability and effect on the International Normalized Ratio (INR) of 5-mg VK1 tablets and solution in(More)