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BACKGROUND Ritonavir is a potent in vitro inhibitor of several cytochrome P450 isozymes and ABC transporters including the efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This study assessed the effect of repetitive ritonavir administration on digoxin distribution and total and renal digoxin clearance as a marker for P-gp activity in vivo. METHODS In a randomized,(More)
AIMS A clinically important interaction between the cardiac glycoside digoxin and the antibiotic clarithromycin has been suggested in earlier reports. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of the interaction and the relative contribution of different mechanisms. METHODS In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over design(More)
BACKGROUND The antidiarrheal drug loperamide is frequently used to treat ritonavir-associated diarrhea in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. The absence of marked central opioid effects has been attributed to its low bioavailability and its poor penetration of the blood-brain barrier, both of which might be altered by ritonavir, a potent(More)
BACKGROUND The pharmacokinetics of digoxin is modulated by the efflux pump P-glycoprotein. Cremophor EL (BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Germany) (polyoxyl 35 castor oil), a castor oil derivative used to improve the solubilization of drugs and vitamins, has been shown to inhibit this membrane transporter in vitro and in vivo. So far, no study in(More)
OBJECTIVES Constituents of St John's wort (SJW) in vivo induce the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes 3A4, 2C9, and 2C19 but in vitro were shown to inhibit them. This study investigates both short- and long-term effects of SJW on the antifungal voriconazole, which is metabolized by these enzymes. METHODS In a controlled, open-label study, single oral doses of(More)
PURPOSE The optimal regimen to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) for patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is unclear. To evaluate the effect of aprepitant in addition to a standard regimen, we conducted this randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS(More)
Voriconazole (VRC) is an antifungal drug that effectively treats keratitis caused by yeasts and molds when administered orally. We retrospectively evaluated clinical outcomes and plasma and aqueous humor drug concentrations in five patients with fungal keratitis and one patient with posttraumatic endophthalmitis who were treated with VRC. VRC was(More)
CYP3A is the main enzyme subfamily involved in the metabolism of the HIV protease-inhibitor saquinavir. We hypothesized that individuals homozygous for CYP3A5*1 might have a higher oral clearance of saquinavir, compared with subjects lacking functional CYP3A5 alleles. A single-dose pharmacokinetic trial of saquinavir soft gel capsules, 1,200 mg, was(More)
In vitro data on the metabolism of the antifungal voriconazole suggest that its pharmacokinetics might be influenced by the activity of CYP2C19, CYP2C9, and CYP3A. To elucidate the genetic influence of polymorphic enzymes on voriconazole metabolism, the authors pooled the pharmacokinetic data from 2 interaction studies in which 35 participants were enrolled(More)