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We have developed an episomal replicating expression vector in which the SV40 gene coding for the large T-antigen was replaced by chromosomal scaffold/matrix attached regions. Southern analysis as well as vector rescue experiments in CHO cells and in Escherichia coli demonstrate that the vector replicates episomally in CHO cells. It occurs in a very low(More)
Using the FLP/FRT system for site-specific recombination and the wild-type recognition site (FRT) in conjunction with certain mutant FRT sites, it becomes possible to provoke, with high yield, a double-reciprocal crossover event in cultured mammalian cells. It is demonstrated that this technology enables a targeting of expression cassettes to appropriate(More)
Matrix attachment regions (MARs) are thought to separate chromatin into topologically constrained loop domains. A MAR located 5' of the human beta-interferon gene becomes stably base-unpaired under superhelical strain, as do the MARs flanking the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene enhancer; in both cases a nucleation site exists for DNA unwinding.(More)
On its upstream side, the human interferon-beta gene is flanked by a 7-kb SAR (scaffold-attached region) DNA element. The core of this element is determined and subjected to in vitro reassociations with isolated scaffolds. Binding properties of SAR fragments with decreasing length are quantified and related to consensus sequences like the topoisomerase II(More)
The expression characteristics of the human interferon-beta gene, as part of a long stretch of genomic DNA, led to the discovery of the putative domain bordering elements. The chromatin structure of these elements and their surroundings was determined during the process of gene activation and correlated with their postulated functions. It is shown that(More)
For a long time S/MARs could only be characterized by the assays in vitro that led to their detection. Only recently a number of biological activities emerged that are common to most or all S/MARs that are detected by the classic procedures. This review focuses on the phenomenon of transcriptional augmentation that is found for genomically anchored or(More)
S/MARs are DNA elements 300 to several thousand base-pairs long, which are operationally defined by their affinity for the nuclear scaffold or matrix. S/MARs occur exclusively in eukaryotic genomes, where they mediate several functions. Because S/MARs do not have a clearcut consensus sequence, the characteristics that define their activity are thought to be(More)
The activation of mammalian origins of replication depends so far on ill understood epigenetic events, such as binding of transcription factors, chromatin structure, and nuclear localization. Understanding these mechanisms is not only a scientific challenge but also represents a prerequisite for the rational design of nonviral episomal vectors for mammalian(More)
Eukaryotic genomes are functionally compartmentalized into chromatin domains by their attachment to a supporting structure that has traditionally been termed the nuclear matrix. Present evidence indicates the dynamics of this entity, which requires particular properties of the elements that mediate this kind of interaction. Above all, this is enabled by the(More)