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Although Helicobacter pylori has generally been considered an extracellular pathogen, a number of in vitro infection experiments and biopsy examinations have shown that it is capable of occasionally entering mammalian host cells. Here, we characterized this entry process by using AGS cells as a host cell model. In gentamicin protection-invasion assays, the(More)
BACKGROUND Biofilm formation has been studied in much detail for a variety of bacterial species, as it plays a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria. However, only limited information is available for the development of archaeal communities that are frequently found in many natural environments. METHODOLOGY We have analyzed biofilm formation in(More)
The activity of serum response factor (SRF), an essential transcription factor in mouse gastrulation, is regulated by changes in actin dynamics. Using Srf(-/-) embryonic stem (ES) cells, we demonstrate that SRF deficiency causes impairments in ES cell spreading, adhesion, and migration. These defects correlate with defective formation of cytoskeletal(More)
Integrins are important mammalian receptors involved in normal cellular functions as well as pathogenesis of chronic inflammation and cancer. We propose that integrins are exploited by the gastric pathogen and type-1 carcinogen Helicobacter pylori for injection of the bacterial oncoprotein cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) into gastric epithelial cells.(More)
The stone-like otoliths from the ears of teleost fishes are involved in balance and hearing and consist of calcium carbonate crystallites embedded in a protein framework. We report that a previously unknown gene, starmaker, is required in zebrafish for otolith morphogenesis. Reduction of starmaker activity by injection of modified antisense oligonucleotides(More)
Life-cycle transitions connecting larval and juvenile stages in metazoans are orchestrated by neuroendocrine signals including neuropeptides and hormones. In marine invertebrate life cycles, which often consist of planktonic larval and benthic adult stages, settlement of the free-swimming larva to the sea floor in response to environmental cues is a key(More)
Retinal physiology is balanced by the interplay between an ON and an OFF channel. The formation of this wiring dichotomy is not understood. Two neuropil sublayers of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) represent levels of cholinergic synaptic circuitry. These two sublayers are better segregated in avians than in most vertebrates; in the chick they are called a(More)
Polyclad flatworms are an early branching clade within the rhabditophoran Platyhelminthes. They provide an interesting system with which to explore the evolution of development within Platyhelminthes and amongst Spiralia (Lophotrochozoa). Unlike most other flatworms, polyclads undergo spiral cleavage (similar to that seen in some other spiralian taxa), they(More)
Ependymal cell culture models from rat have been developed over the last 20 years to facilitate biochemical studies on this least-studied glial cell type. The cell culture protocol calls for the presence of thrombin, which is essential for obtaining a high proportion of multiciliated ependymal cells. The serine protease appears to act via protease-activated(More)
BACKGROUND A critical point during the course of bacterial meningitis is the excessive influx of polymorphnuclear neutrophils (PMNs) from the blood into the brain. Both paracellular and transcellular routes of leukocyte transmigration through the blood-brain barrier have been described in CNS diseases so far. Thus, we investigated the mechanism of PMN(More)