Learn More
Recent studies indicate that the cortical effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may not be localized to the site of stimulation, but spread to other distant areas. Using echo-planar imaging with blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast at 3 Tesla, we measured MRI signal changes in cortical and subcortical motor regions during(More)
To elucidate changes in human brain activity evoked by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), sub- and suprathreshold rTMS (4 Hz, 10 s) over the left primary sensorimotor cortex (M1/S1) was interleaved with blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) echo-planar imaging of primary and secondary motor areas. Suprathreshold rTMS over left M1/S1(More)
As the amygdala is involved in various aspects of emotional processing, its characterization using neuroimaging modalities, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), is of great interest. However, in fMRI, the amygdala region suffers from susceptibility artifacts that are composed of signal dropouts and image distortions. Various technically(More)
The present study examines the functional and anatomical underpinnings of egocentric and allocentric coding of spatial coordinates. For this purpose, we set up a functional magnet resonance imaging experiment using verbal descriptions of spatial relations either with respect to the listener (egocentric) or without any body-centered relations (allocentric)(More)
In the last decade, combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-neuroimaging studies have greatly stimulated research in the field of TMS and neuroimaging. Here, we review how TMS can be combined with various neuroimaging techniques to investigate human brain function. When applied during neuroimaging (online approach), TMS can be used to test how(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) hypothesis testing based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast mechanism typically involves a search for a positive effect during a specific task relative to a control state. However, aside from positive BOLD signal changes there is converging evidence that neuronal responses within various(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans have hitherto failed to demonstrate activity changes in the direct vicinity of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) that cannot be attributed to re-afferent somatosensory feedback or a spread of excitation. In order to investigate the underlying activity changes at the site of stimulation as(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based on blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast is the most widely used technique for imaging human brain function. However, the dynamic interplay of altered cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and oxidative metabolism (CMRO2) is not yet fully understood. One of the characteristics(More)
PURPOSE To minimize artifacts in echo-planar imaging (EPI) of human brain function introduced by simultaneous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS Distortions due to TMS pulses (0.25 msec, 2.0 T) were studied at 2.0 T before and during EPI. RESULTS Best results were obtained if both the EPI section orientation and the(More)
BACKGROUND Present evidence suggests that the hippocampus (HC) and the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) are involved in allocentric (world-centered) spatial memory. However, the putative role of the PHC in egocentric (body-centered) spatial learning has received only limited systematic investigation. METHODS To examine the role of the PHC in egocentric(More)