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To elucidate changes in human brain activity evoked by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), sub- and suprathreshold rTMS (4 Hz, 10 s) over the left primary sensorimotor cortex (M1/S1) was interleaved with blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) echo-planar imaging of primary and secondary motor areas. Suprathreshold rTMS over left M1/S1(More)
Recent studies indicate that the cortical effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may not be localized to the site of stimulation, but spread to other distant areas. Using echo-planar imaging with blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast at 3 Tesla, we measured MRI signal changes in cortical and subcortical motor regions during(More)
The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on human brain activity and associated hemodynamics were investigated by blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) MRI using echo-planar imaging at 2.0 T. Apart from bilateral activation of the auditory cortex by the audible rTMS discharges (23 bursts, 1 s duration, 10 Hz, 10-20 s(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to probe the acute effect of a single oral dose of various dopaminergic (levodopa, selegiline, bromocriptine) and antidopaminergic drugs (sulpiride, haloperidol) on motor cortex excitability in healthy volunteers. Motor threshold, intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation were tested in the abductor(More)
Storage and periodic expulsion of urine by the bladder are controlled by central pathways and organized as simple on-off switching circuits. Several reports concerning aspects of micturition control have identified distinct regions in the brainstem, like the pontine micturition center (PMC) and the periaqueductal gray (PAG), as well as the cerebellum, basal(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans have hitherto failed to demonstrate activity changes in the direct vicinity of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) that cannot be attributed to re-afferent somatosensory feedback or a spread of excitation. In order to investigate the underlying activity changes at the site of stimulation as(More)
Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI was used to monitor modulations of human sensorimotor activity by prior transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Activation maps for a right hand sequential finger opposition task were obtained for six subjects before as well as 0-5 min and 15-20 min after a 5-min period of 1 mA cathodal and, in a separate(More)
As the amygdala is involved in various aspects of emotional processing, its characterization using neuroimaging modalities, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), is of great interest. However, in fMRI, the amygdala region suffers from susceptibility artifacts that are composed of signal dropouts and image distortions. Various technically(More)
The present study examines the functional and anatomical underpinnings of egocentric and allocentric coding of spatial coordinates. For this purpose, we set up a functional magnet resonance imaging experiment using verbal descriptions of spatial relations either with respect to the listener (egocentric) or without any body-centered relations (allocentric)(More)
PURPOSE To minimize artifacts in echo-planar imaging (EPI) of human brain function introduced by simultaneous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS Distortions due to TMS pulses (0.25 msec, 2.0 T) were studied at 2.0 T before and during EPI. RESULTS Best results were obtained if both the EPI section orientation and the(More)