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Polycomb group (PcG) proteins maintain transcriptional repression during development, likely by creating repressive chromatin states. The Extra Sex Combs (ESC) and Enhancer of Zeste [E(Z)] proteins are partners in an essential PcG complex, but its full composition and biochemical activities are not known. A SET domain in E(Z) suggests this complex might(More)
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that control processes ranging from the maintenance of cell fate decisions and stem cell pluripotency in animals to the control of flowering time in plants. In Drosophila, genetic studies identified more than 15 different PcG proteins that are required to repress homeotic (HOX) and other(More)
Early in Drosophila embryogenesis, gap gene products directly repress transcription of homeotic (HOX) genes and thereby delimit HOX expression domains. Subsequently, Polycomb-group proteins maintain this repression. Currently, there is no known molecular link between gap and Polycomb-group proteins. Here, dMi-2 is identified as a protein that binds to a(More)
Although many metazoan enzymes that add or remove specific modifications on histone proteins are essential transcriptional regulators, the functional significance of posttranslational modifications on histone proteins is not well understood. Here, we show in Drosophila that a point mutation in lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3-K27) fails to repress transcription(More)
PRC2 is thought to be the histone methyltransferase (HMTase) responsible for H3-K27 trimethylation at Polycomb target genes. Here we report the biochemical purification and characterization of a distinct form of Drosophila PRC2 that contains the Polycomb group protein polycomblike (Pcl). Like PRC2, Pcl-PRC2 is an H3-K27-specific HMTase that mono-, di- and(More)
Polycomb group proteins are conserved transcriptional repressors that control animal and plant development. Here, we found that the Drosophila Polycomb group gene super sex combs (sxc) encodes Ogt, the highly conserved glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the addition of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to proteins in animals and plants. Genome-wide profiling in(More)
Pygo and BCL9/Legless transduce the Wnt signal by promoting the transcriptional activity of beta-catenin/Armadillo in normal and malignant cells. We show that human and Drosophila Pygo PHD fingers associate with their cognate HD1 domains from BCL9/Legless to bind specifically to the histone H3 tail methylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me). The crystal structures of(More)
The homeotic gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) is expressed in specific parts of Drosophila embryos: in a single metamer in the visceral mesoderm and forming a complex pattern limited to a broad domain in the ectoderm and in the somatic mesoderm. Here we use a linked beta-galactosidase gene to identify cis-acting regulatory sequences. In the visceral mesoderm,(More)
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins repress homeotic genes and other developmental regulatory genes in cells where these genes must remain inactive during development. In Drosophila and in vertebrates, PcG proteins exist in two distinct multiprotein complexes, the Esc/Eed-E(z) complex and PRC1. Drosophila PRC1 contains Polycomb, Posterior sexcombs and(More)
In Drosophila, defects in asymmetric cell division often result in the formation of stem-cell-derived tumours. Here, we show that very similar terminal brain tumour phenotypes arise through a fundamentally different mechanism. We demonstrate that brain tumours in l(3)mbt mutants originate from overproliferation of neuroepithelial cells in the optic lobes(More)