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Pandora neoaphidis is one of the most important fungal pathogens of aphids and has a great potential for use in biocontrol. Little is known on how this fungus persists in an area and in particular on its overwintering strategies. It is hypothesized that natural areas play an important role for survival and that soil may serve as a source of inoculum for new(More)
Soil fungal community structures are often highly heterogeneous even among samples taken from small field plots. Sample pooling is widely used in order to overcome this heterogeneity, however, no objective criteria have yet been defined on how to determine the number of samples to be pooled for representatively profiling a field plot. In the present study(More)
Fungal xylanases from Trichoderma spp. are potent elicitors of defense responses in various plants. To determine whether enzymatic activity is necessary for elicitor activity, we used site-directed mutagenesis to reduce the catalytic activity of xylanase II from Trichoderma reesei. For this, the glutamic acid residue at position 210, which is part of the(More)
Pollen beetles Meligethes aeneus were collected in oilseed rape fields at different sites in Switzerland in spring 2004-2005 and 32 isolates of the fungal genus Beauveria occurring as latent infections in the beetles were obtained and molecularly characterized. Three major clades, Beauveria bassiana sensu stricto (Clade A: n=13), Beauveriabrongniartii(More)
Residual activity of polymerase chain reaction DNA polymerases in restriction analyses strongly affected genetic profiling based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Artificial fragment sizes produced as a result of 5'-overhang restriction site fill-in and addition of a terminal A may bias genetic profiling and genotyping of microbial(More)
A new genotyping tool has been developed and evaluated for Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae. The tool is based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of three chitinase genes that are functionally linked to insect-pathogenicity of this fungus. It allowed for discrimination of 14 genotypes among 22 M. anisopliae var. anisopliae(More)
Pandora neoaphidis (Entomophthoromycotina, Entomophthorales) is one of the most important fungal pathogens of aphids with great potential as a biological control agent. Development of tools that allow high-resolution monitoring of P. neoaphidis in the environment is a prerequisite for the successful implementation of biological control strategies. In this(More)
The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and sister species are some of the most widely used biological control agents for insects. Availability of specific monitoring and quantification tools are essential for the investigation of environmental factors influencing their environmental distribution. Naturally occurring as well as released(More)
Cultivation-independent analyses of fungi are used for community profiling as well as identification of specific strains in environmental samples. The objective of the present study was to adapt genotyping based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker detection for use in cultivation-independent monitoring of fungal species or strains in bulk soil DNA. As a(More)
PCR amplification of target genes from environmental DNA extracts can suffer from PCR inhibition, caused by co-extracted substances. No simple assay has been available to quantify this inhibition. Therefore, a generally applicable PCR inhibition-assay was developed, which allows determination of statistically significant inhibition of PCR. This information(More)