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Reverse transcriptase (RT) is an indispensable component of infectious retroviruses. We have developed an ultrasensitive RT test in which RNA of bacteriophage MS2 serves as the template for RT-mediated cDNA synthesis. A fragment of the cDNA is selectively amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the amplification product is analyzed by Southern blot(More)
We performed a phylogenetic analysis of caprine and ovine lentiviruses using long sequences in gag and pol of 104 new Swiss isolates and six available corresponding database sequences. Forty-five isolates, forming five sequence clusters, were unclassifiable by the present classification. Pairwise DNA distance analysis indicated different categories of(More)
Small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), which include the caprine arthritis-encephalitis and the maedi-visna virus, cause persistent inflammatory infections in goats and sheep. SRLV are mainly transmitted from mother to offspring through milk. Transmission after prolonged contact between adult animals has also been observed. The observation that certain SRLV(More)
BACKGROUND The time passed since the infection of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individual (the age of infection) is an important but often only poorly known quantity. We assessed whether the fraction of ambiguous nucleotides obtained from bulk sequencing as done for genotypic resistance testing can serve as a proxy of this parameter. (More)
Tests for the enzyme reverse transcriptase (RT) should permit the detection of all infectious retroviruses, provided that these are present as extracellular particles. The capability of a new procedure, named product-enhanced reverse transcriptase (PERT) assay, to detect HIV-1 in fresh human plasma was compared with that of the polymerase chain reaction(More)
Epidemiological processes leave a fingerprint in the pattern of genetic structure of virus populations. Here, we provide a new method to infer epidemiological parameters directly from viral sequence data. The method is based on phylogenetic analysis using a birth-death model (BDM) rather than the commonly used coalescent as the model for the epidemiological(More)
Microbial superantigens (SAGs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of human autoimmune diseases. Preferential expansion of the Vveta7 T cell receptor positive T cell subset in patients suffering from acute-onset type I diabetes has indicated the presence of a surface membrane-bound SAG. Here, we have isolated a novel mouse mammary tumor virus-related(More)
OBJECTIVES Representative prevalence data of transmitted drug-resistant HIV-1 are essential to establish accurate guidelines addressing resistance testing and first-line treatments. METHODS Systematic resistance testing was carried out in individuals in Switzerland with documented HIV-1 seroconversion during 1996-2005 and available samples with RNA > 1000(More)
An improved quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method based on a combination of real-time detection and the 5'-3' nuclease activity of the Taq DNA polymerase was developed to quantify the provirus load of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a lentivirus of veterinary importance and an animal model for AIDS research. Two fluorogenic probes were(More)
BACKGROUND Standard first-line combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) against human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) contains either a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r). Differences between these regimen types in the extent of the emergence of drug resistance on virological failure(More)