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BACKGROUND The time passed since the infection of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individual (the age of infection) is an important but often only poorly known quantity. We assessed whether the fraction of ambiguous nucleotides obtained from bulk sequencing as done for genotypic resistance testing can serve as a proxy of this parameter. (More)
HIV-1 replicative capacity (RC) provides a measure of within-host fitness and is determined in the context of phenotypic drug resistance testing. However it is unclear how these in-vitro measurements relate to in-vivo processes. Here we assess RCs in a clinical setting by combining a previously published machine-learning tool, which predicts RC values from(More)
We have recently shown that live attenuated virus vaccines produced on chicken-derived cells contain low levels of particle-associated reverse transcriptase (RT). In both virus and corresponding control harvests produced on chicken embryo fibroblasts, these activities were present at significantly higher concentrations than in the vaccines. In order to(More)
Microbial superantigens (SAGs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of human autoimmune diseases. Preferential expansion of the Vveta7 T cell receptor positive T cell subset in patients suffering from acute-onset type I diabetes has indicated the presence of a surface membrane-bound SAG. Here, we have isolated a novel mouse mammary tumor virus-related(More)
HIV virulence, i.e. the time of progression to AIDS, varies greatly among patients. As for other rapidly evolving pathogens of humans, it is difficult to know if this variance is controlled by the genotype of the host or that of the virus because the transmission chain is usually unknown. We apply the phylogenetic comparative approach (PCA) to estimate the(More)
Contact structure is believed to have a large impact on epidemic spreading and consequently using networks to model such contact structure continues to gain interest in epidemiology. However, detailed knowledge of the exact contact structure underlying real epidemics is limited. Here we address the question whether the structure of the contact network(More)
The prion protein (PrP) is crucially involved in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), but neither its exact role in disease nor its physiological function are known. Here we show for mice, using histological, immunochemical and PCR-based methods, that stimulation of innate resistance was followed by appearance of numerous endogenous retroviruses(More)
Reverse transcriptase (RT) is an indispensable component of infectious retroviruses. We have developed an ultrasensitive RT test in which RNA of bacteriophage MS2 serves as the template for RT-mediated cDNA synthesis. A fragment of the cDNA is selectively amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the amplification product is analyzed by Southern blot(More)
BACKGROUND New HIV infections in men who have sex with men (MSM) have increased in Switzerland since 2000 despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The objectives of this mathematical modelling study were: to describe the dynamics of the HIV epidemic in MSM in Switzerland using national data; to explore the effects of hypothetical prevention(More)
OBJECTIVES It is still debated if pre-existing minority drug-resistant HIV-1 variants (MVs) affect the virological outcomes of first-line NNRTI-containing ART. METHODS This Europe-wide case-control study included ART-naive subjects infected with drug-susceptible HIV-1 as revealed by population sequencing, who achieved virological suppression on first-line(More)