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The seven-transmembrane receptor CX(3)CR1 is a specific receptor for the novel CX(3)C chemokine fractalkine (FKN) (neurotactin). In vitro data suggest that membrane anchoring of FKN, and the existence of a shed, soluble FKN isoform allow for both adhesive and chemoattractive properties. Expression on activated endothelium and neurons defines FKN as a(More)
Host resistance to the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is highly dependent on early IL-12 production by APC. We demonstrate here that both host resistance and T. gondii-induced IL-12 production are dramatically reduced in mice lacking the adaptor molecule MyD88, an important signaling element used by Toll-like receptor (TLR) family members.(More)
CD40 ligation triggers IL-12 production by dendritic cells (DC) in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that CD40 cross-linking alone is not sufficient to induce IL-12 production by DC in vivo. Indeed, resting DC make neither the IL-12 p35 nor IL-12 p40 subunits and express only low levels of CD40. Nevertheless, after DC activation by microbial stimuli that(More)
The activation of dendritic cells (DC) to produce interleukin 12 (IL-12) is thought to be a key step in the initiation of cell-mediated immunity to intracellular pathogens. Here we show that ligation of the C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 5 can provide a major signal for the induction of IL-12 synthesis by the CD8 alpha+ subset of DC and that this pathway is(More)
Toxoplasma gondii releases factors that potently stimulate production of interleukin-12 (IL-12) from dendritic cells (DCs). Purification of this activity showed that cyclophilin-18 (C-18) was its principal component, and antibodies generated against recombinant C-18 inhibited tachyzoite extract-induced synthesis of IL-12. Recombinant C-18 showed high(More)
Control of inflammation is crucial to prevent damage to the host during infection. Lipoxins and aspirin-triggered lipoxins are crucial modulators of proinflammatory responses; however, their intracellular mechanisms have not been completely elucidated. We previously showed that lipoxin A4 (LXA4) controls migration of dendritic cells (DCs) and production of(More)
Differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells into IFN-gamma-producing T helper 1 (T(H)1) cells is pivotal for protective immune responses against intracellular pathogens. T-bet, a recently discovered member of the T-box transcription factor family, has been reported to play a critical role in this process, promoting IFN-gamma production. Although terminal T(H)1(More)
The essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) present in fish oils displays beneficial effects in a range of human disorders associated with inflammation including cardiovascular disease. Resolvin E1 (RvE1), a new bioactive oxygenated product of EPA, was identified in human plasma and prepared by total organic synthesis. Results of bioaction and(More)
We investigated the kinetics of parasite replication, leukocyte migration, and cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression in the heart tissue from animals infected with the Colombiana strain of Trypanosoma cruzi. Cardiac tissue parasitism was noticeable at 15 days, peaked around 30 days and was dramatically reduced at 120 days postinfection (p.i.). Kinetic studies(More)
The production of interleukin (IL)-12 is critical for the development of interferon (IFN)-gamma-dependent resistance to Toxoplasma gondii. Nevertheless, when this response is dysregulated, such as occurs in the absence of IL-10, the uncontrolled inflammation that results can have lethal consequences for the host. Recently, we demonstrated that lipoxin(More)