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The effects of Bothrops insularis venom were examined in vivo in mice and chicks and in vitro using the mouse phrenic nerve diaphragm and chick biventer cervicis muscle preparations. Incubation of the indirectly or directly stimulated mouse preparation with B. insularis venom (20-80 micrograms/ml) produced an initial increase in twitch tension followed by(More)
Crotoxin, the main toxin of South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom, was the first snake venom protein to be purified and crystallized. Crotoxin is a heterodimeric beta-neurotoxin that consists of a weakly toxic basic phospholipase A(2) and a non-enzymatic, non-toxic acidic component (crotapotin). The classic biological activities(More)
Bothrops leucurus is a poorly studied pitviper found in northeastern Brazil. We examined the action of B. leucurus venom (5-100 microg/ml) on contractile responses in chick biventer cervicis preparations. Muscle damage was assessed by quantifying the release of creatine kinase (CK) and by histological analysis. B. leucurus venom dose-dependently inhibited(More)
Bothrops erythromelas (BEV) and B. alternatus (BAV) venoms induced a dose-dependent neutrophil migration when injected into rat peritoneal cavities (20-160 micrograms/cavity). These venoms (80 micrograms/rat) also induced neutrophil migration in the air pouch model of inflammation. This migratory response seemed to be related to the phospholipase A2 (PLA2)(More)
Bothropstoxin-I from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom is a lysine-49 phospholipase A(2) with myotoxic and neurotoxic activities. In this study, we used mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations in the absence and presence of manganese (Mn(2+)), a presynaptic blocker, to investigate a possible presynaptic action of bothropstoxin-I. At concentrations of 0.9(More)
Convulxin (Cx), a component of the venom of the snake Crotalus durissus cascavella, induced the concentration-dependent aggregation of guinea-pig platelets when used at and above 50 +/- 5 ng/ml, accompanied by the release of ATP and by the formation of thromboxanes (Tx). Platelet activation by Cx was not due to potential contaminants found in the crude(More)
Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake) venom possesses myotoxic and neurotoxic activities, both of which are also expressed by crotoxin, the principal toxin of this venom. We have investigated the ability of commercial equine antivenom and antivenoms raised in rabbits against C. d. terrificus venom and crotoxin to neutralize the(More)
Snake venoms contain saccharide-binding lectins. In this work, we examined the biological activities of a lectin (BjcuL) purified from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom by chromatography on non-derivatized Sepharose 4B and Sephacryl S-200 HR. The protein, a homodimer with subunits of 14.5 kDa, gave a single immunoprecipitin line in immunoelectrophoresis and(More)