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In order to test the preference of growing axons for membrane-associated positional specificity a new in vitro assay was developed. In this assay, membrane fragments of two different sources are arranged as a carpet of very narrow alternating strips. Axons growing on such striped carpets are simultaneously confronted with the two substrates at the stripe(More)
Membrane carpets consisting of alternating membrane stripes were prepared from plasma membranes of anterior and posterior chick optic tectum. Axons from retinal explants extend neurites on these carpets. Axons of the nasal retina do not distinguish between the stripes. Axons of the temporal retina prefer to extend neurites on anterior tectal membranes.(More)
Genome-wide DNA methylation reprogramming occurs in mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) and preimplantation embryos, but the precise dynamics and biological outcomes are largely unknown. We have carried out whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (BS-Seq) and RNA-Seq across key stages from E6.5 epiblast to E16.5 PGCs. Global loss of methylation takes place during(More)
Genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming in mammalian germ cells, zygote and early embryos, plays a crucial role in regulating genome functions at critical stages of development. We show here that mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) exhibit dynamic changes in epigenetic modifications between days 10.5 and 12.5 post coitum (dpc). First, contrary to previous(More)
Genomic imprinting affects several dozen mammalian genes and results in the expression of those genes from only one of the two parental chromosomes. This is brought about by epigenetic instructions--imprints--that are laid down in the parental germ cells. Imprinting is a particularly important genetic mechanism in mammals, and is thought to influence the(More)
Mouse embryos undergo genome-wide methylation reprogramming by demethylation in early preimplantation development, followed by remethylation thereafter. Here we show that genome-wide reprogramming is conserved in several mammalian species and ask whether it also occurs in embryos cloned with the use of highly methylated somatic donor nuclei. Normal bovine,(More)
alpha-Synuclein has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, since rare autosomal dominant mutations are associated with early onset of the disease and alpha-synuclein was found to be a major constituent of Lewy bodies. We have analyzed alpha-synuclein expression in transfected cell lines. In pulse-chase experiments alpha-synuclein(More)
Tet proteins oxidize 5-methylcytosine (mC) to generate 5-hydroxymethyl (hmC), 5-formyl (fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (caC). The exact function of these oxidative cytosine bases remains elusive. We applied quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomics to identify readers for mC and hmC in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC), neuronal progenitor cells (NPC),(More)