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Although glioblastomas show the same histologic phenotype, biological hallmarks such as growth and differentiation properties vary considerably between individual cases. To investigate whether different subtypes of glioblastomas might originate from different cells of origin, we cultured tumor cells from 22 glioblastomas under medium conditions favoring the(More)
The cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, by virtue of its immunosuppressive and promigratory properties, has become a major target for the experimental treatment of human malignant gliomas. Here we characterize the effects of a novel TGF-beta receptor (TGF-betaR) I kinase inhibitor, SD-208, on the growth and immunogenicity of murine SMA-560 and(More)
The prognosis of patients suffering from glioblastoma (GBM) is dismal despite multimodal therapy. Although chemotherapy with temozolomide may contain tumor growth for some months, invariable tumor recurrence suggests that cancer stem cells (CSC) maintaining these tumors persist. We have therefore investigated the effect of temozolomide on CD133(+) and(More)
The contribution of Fas (CD95/APO-1) to cell death mechanisms of differentiated neurons is controversially discussed. Rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) express high levels of Fas in vitro but are resistant to FasL (CD95L/APO-1L/CD178)-induced apoptosis. We here show that this resistance was mediated by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(More)
In a multicenter study, we determined the expression profiles of 863 microRNAs by array analysis of 454 blood samples from human individuals with different cancers or noncancer diseases, and validated this 'miRNome' by quantitative real-time PCR. We detected consistently deregulated profiles for all tested diseases; pathway analysis confirmed disease(More)
Reactivation of mutant p53 in tumours is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Here we characterise the novel p53 rescue compound P53R3 that restores sequence-specific DNA binding of the endogenously expressed p53(R175H) and p53(R273H) mutants in gel-shift assays. Overexpression of the paradigmatic p53 mutants p53(R175H), p53(R248W) and p53(R273H) in the(More)
Temozolomide (TMZ) is a methylating agent which prolongs survival when administered during and after radiotherapy in the first-line treatment of glioblastoma and which also has significant activity in recurrent disease. O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a DNA repair enzyme attributed a role in cancer cell resistance to O6-alkylating(More)
The proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) stimulates tumor cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis; promotes tumor angiogenesis; suppresses p53-mediated apoptosis; and inhibits antitumor immunity by largely unknown mechanisms. We here describe an overexpression of MIF in ovarian cancer that correlates with malignancy(More)
HLA-E is a ligand for the immune-inhibitory NKG2A receptor expressed on NK and T cells. To investigate HLA-E expression and immune cell infiltration in human astrocytic tumors in vivo, we analyzed normal CNS controls and astrocytomas of all WHO grades by immunohistochemistry. Both, CD8(+) immune cell infiltration and HLA-E expression were significantly(More)
A tumor promoting role of macrophages has been described for a transgenic murine breast cancer model. In this model tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent a major component of the leukocytic infiltrate and are associated with tumor progression. Shigella flexneri is a bacterial pathogen known to specificly induce apotosis in macrophages. To evaluate(More)