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BACKGROUND There is no consensus method for determining progression of disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) when each patient has had only a single assessment in the course of the disease. METHODS Using data from two large longitudinal databases, the authors tested whether cross-sectional disability assessments are representative of disease(More)
Although the killing of dependent infants by adult males is a widespread phenomenon among primates, its causes and consequences still remain hotly debated. According to the sexual selection hypothesis, infanticidal males will gain a reproductive advantage provided that only unrelated infants are killed and that the males increase their chances of siring the(More)
Autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) form a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders. The defect responsible for SCA3/Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) has been identified as an unstable and expanded (CAG)n trinucleotide repeat in the coding region of a novel gene of unknown function. The MJD1 gene product,(More)
N -Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated excitotoxicity has been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of Huntington disease (HD), an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder associated with defined expansions in a stretch of perfect CAG repeats in the 5' part of the IT15 gene. The number of CAG repeat units is highly predictive for the age at(More)
Seventy-seven families with autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia were analyzed for the CAG repeat expansions causing spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) types 1, 2, 3, and 6. The SCA1 mutation accounted for 9%, SCA2 for 10%, SCA3 for 42%, and SCA6 for 22% of German ataxia families. Seven of 27 SCA6 patients had no family history of ataxia. Age at onset correlated(More)
Emotion recognition from both face and voice and experience of emotions were investigated in a group of non-symptomatic people at risk of carrying the Huntington's disease gene who presented for genetic testing. Based on the results of the DNA test, a group of people carrying the Huntington's disease gene (HD+), and a group of non-carriers (HD-) were(More)
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a genetically determined common subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Linkage to the HLA complex on chromosome 6p21.3 and an allelic association with HLA-DR13 and -DQB1 alleles suggest that a susceptibility locus for JME, designated as "EJM1," is located within or near the HLA region. However, further studies(More)
Friedreich's ataxia is an autosomal recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansions of an unstable GAA trinucleotide repeat in the STM7/X25 gene on chromosome 9q. We studied the (GAA)n polymorphism in 178 healthy controls and 102 patients with idiopathic ataxia. The repeat size ranged from 7 to 29 (GAA)n motifs on normal chromosomes(More)
BACKGROUND Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism is a possible factor contributing to the maternal parent-of-origin effect in multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility. METHODS AND FINDINGS In order to investigate the role of mtDNA variations in MS, we investigated six European MS case-control cohorts comprising >5,000 individuals. Three well matched(More)
Although the left and right human cerebral hemispheres differ both functionally and anatomically, the mechanisms that underlie the establishment of these hemispheric specializations, as well as their physiological and behavioral implications, remain largely unknown. Since cerebral asymmetry is strongly correlated with handedness, and handedness is assumed(More)