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BACKGROUND There is no consensus method for determining progression of disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) when each patient has had only a single assessment in the course of the disease. METHODS Using data from two large longitudinal databases, the authors tested whether cross-sectional disability assessments are representative of disease(More)
A polymorphic microsatellite (Y-27H39) based on a (GATA) n repeat was recently discovered on the short arm of the human Y chromosome. We have used a simple technique based on polymerase chain reaction amplification and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by highly sensitive silver staining to study the inheritance, the genetic stability and(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders affecting about 1% of Western populations older than age 50. The pathological hallmark of PD are Lewy bodies, that is, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in affected neurons of the substantia nigra. Recently, alpha-synuclein (alpha-SYN) has been identified as the main component of(More)
Microsatellite systems originally established for human DNA were utilized for paternity testing from faecal DNA in a natural population of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Thirty-two primer pairs were applied to amplify DNA obtained from langur faeces. Twenty-two of these primer pairs yielded specific amplification products and 11 loci were(More)
has become a model insect for testing theories of sexual selection. This contribution summarizes that which has been learned in recent years and presents new data that clearly show that the mating system of P. vulgaris is not simply a resource-defense polygyny, as has previously been thought. In P. vulgaris neither the pattern in food exploitation nor the(More)
Gene products encoded by the major histocompatibility complex often exhibit a high degree of polymorphism. In humans the HLA-DR polymorphism is due to more than 50 alleles with varying exon 2 sequences. Each group of DRB alleles contains a certain form of the basic simple repeat motif (gt)n(ga)m in intron 2. Identical alleles can be differentiated on the(More)
Seventy-seven families with autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia were analyzed for the CAG repeat expansions causing spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) types 1, 2, 3, and 6. The SCA1 mutation accounted for 9%, SCA2 for 10%, SCA3 for 42%, and SCA6 for 22% of German ataxia families. Seven of 27 SCA6 patients had no family history of ataxia. Age at onset correlated(More)
Variation in the genes encoding the interleukin (IL) 7 and IL2 receptor alpha chains (IL7RA, IL2RA) was recently found associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). We evaluated the role of these two genes in a large German MS case-control cohort. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL7RA and four in IL2RA were genotyped in 1319 MS patients and 908(More)
Hypotheses about the evolution of gregariousness and social organisation in primates are based on ecological explanations as well as on social factors such as conspecific threat (especially infanticide by males). The social explanation fits well with the conditions found in strepsirrhine primates and furthermore explains why infanticide in anthropoid(More)