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5-Aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of heme biosynthesis in humans, animals, other non-plant eukaryotes, and alpha-proteobacteria. It catalyzes the synthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid, the first common precursor of all tetrapyrroles, from glycine and succinyl-coenzyme A (sCoA) in a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent(More)
Iba2 is a homolog of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), a 17-kDa protein that binds and cross-links filamentous actin (F-actin) and localizes to membrane ruffles and phagocytic cups. Here, we present the crystal structure of human Iba2 and its homodimerization properties, F-actin cross-linking activity, cellular localization and recruitment(More)
The protein kinase C-related kinase 2 (PRK2)-interacting fragment (PIF) pocket of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) was proposed as a novel target site for allosteric modulators. In the present work, we describe the design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship of a series of 2-(3-oxo-1,3-diphenylpropyl)malonic acids as potent allosteric(More)
Protein kinases are key mediators of cellular signaling, and therefore, their activities are tightly controlled. AGC kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and by N- and C-terminal regions. Here, we studied the molecular mechanism of inhibition of atypical PKCζ and found that the inhibition by the N-terminal region cannot be explained by a simple(More)
The PIF-pocket of AGC protein kinases participates in the physiologic mechanism of regulation by acting as a docking site for substrates and as a switch for the transduction of the conformational changes needed for activation or inhibition. We describe the effects of compounds that bind to the PIF-pocket of PDK1. In vitro, PS210 is a potent activator of(More)
The group of AGC protein kinases includes more than 60 protein kinases in the human genome, classified into 14 families: PDK1, AKT/PKB, SGK, PKA, PKG, PKC, PKN/PRK, RSK, NDR, MAST, YANK, DMPK, GRK and SGK494. This group is also widely represented in other eukaryotes, including causative organisms of human infectious diseases. AGC kinases are involved in(More)
In Escherichia coli the first common precursor of all tetrapyrroles, 5-aminolevulinic acid, is synthesized from glutamyl-tRNA (Glu-tRNA(Glu)) in a two-step reaction catalyzed by glutamyl-tRNA reductase (GluTR) and glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase (GSA-AM). To protect the highly reactive reaction intermediate glutamate-1-semialdehyde (GSA), a tight(More)
Error-free protein biosynthesis is dependent on the reliable charging of each tRNA with its cognate amino acid. Many bacteria, however, lack a glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase. In these organisms, tRNA(Gln) is initially mischarged with glutamate by a non-discriminating glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (ND-GluRS). This enzyme thus charges both tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Gln) with(More)
Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a hexacoordinate globin expressed in the brain of vertebrates. Ferrous Ngb binds dioxygen with high affinity and the O(2) adduct is able to scavenge NO. Convincing in vitro and in vivo data indicate that Ngb is involved in neuroprotection during hypoxia and ischemia. The 3D structure of Ngb reveals the presence of a wide internal cavity(More)
Glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase (GSAM) is the second enzyme in the C(5) pathway of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis found in most bacteria, in archaea and in plants. It catalyzes the transamination of glutamate-1-semialdehyde to 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent manner. We present the crystal structure of GSAM from(More)