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Movement of particles in cell nuclei can be affected by viscosity, directed flows, active transport, or the presence of obstacles such as the chromatin network. Here we investigate whether the mobility of small fluorescent proteins is affected by the chromatin density. Diffusion of inert fluorescent proteins was studied in living cell nuclei using(More)
We introduce a new method for mesoscopic modeling of protein diffusion in an entire cell. This method is based on the construction of a three-dimensional digital model cell from confocal microscopy data. The model cell is segmented into the cytoplasm, nucleus, plasma membrane, and nuclear envelope, in which environment protein motion is modeled by fully(More)
Nucleosomes are multi-component macromolecular assemblies which present a formidable obstacle to enzymatic activities that require access to the DNA, e.g. DNA and RNA polymerases. The mechanism and pathway(s) by which nucleosomes disassemble to allow DNA access are not well understood. Here we present evidence from single molecule FRET experiments for a(More)
Histone tails play an important role in nucleosome structure and dynamics. Here we investigate the effect of truncation of histone tails H3, H4, H2A and H2B on nucleosome structure with 100 ns all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Tail domains of H3 and H2B show propensity of α-helics formation during the intact nucleosome simulation. On truncation of H4(More)
A new Monte Carlo model for the structure of chromatin is presented here. Based on our previous work on superhelical DNA and polynucleosomes, it reintegrates aspects of the "solenoid" and the "zig-zag" models. The DNA is modeled as a flexible elastic polymer chain, consisting of segments connected by elastic bending, torsional, and stretching springs. The(More)
A Brownian dynamics (BD) model described in the accompanying paper (Klenin, K., H. Merlitz, and J. Langowski. 1998. A Brownian dynamics program for the simulation of linear and circular DNA, and other wormlike chain polyelectrolytes. Biophys. J. 74:000-000) has been used for computing the end-to-end distance distribution function, the cyclization(More)
A coarse-grained simulation model for the nucleosome is developed, using a methodology modified from previous work on the ribosome. Protein residues and DNA nucleotides are represented as beads, interacting through harmonic (for neighboring) or Morse (for nonbonded) potentials. Force-field parameters were estimated by Boltzmann inversion of the(More)
An image analysis method is presented which allows for the reconstruction of the three-dimensional path of filamentous objects from two of their projections. Starting with stereo pairs, this method is used to trace the trajectory of DNA molecules embedded in vitreous ice and leads to a faithful representation of their three-dimensional shape in solution.(More)
Using small angle neutron scattering we have measured the static form factor of two different superhelical DNAs, p1868 (1868 bp) and pUC18 (2686 bp), in dilute aqueous solution at salt concentrations between 0 and 1.5 M Na+ in 10 mM Tris at 0% and 100% D2O. For both DNA molecules, the theoretical static form factor was also calculated from an ensemble of(More)
In this paper a lattice model for the diffusional transport of particles in the interphase cell nucleus is proposed. The dynamical behavior of single chains on the lattice is investigated and Rouse scaling is verified. Dynamical dense networks are created by a combined version of the bond fluctuation method and a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm. Semidilute(More)