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Movement of particles in cell nuclei can be affected by viscosity, directed flows, active transport, or the presence of obstacles such as the chromatin network. Here we investigate whether the mobility of small fluorescent proteins is affected by the chromatin density. Diffusion of inert fluorescent proteins was studied in living cell nuclei using(More)
We introduce a new method for mesoscopic modeling of protein diffusion in an entire cell. This method is based on the construction of a three-dimensional digital model cell from confocal microscopy data. The model cell is segmented into the cytoplasm, nucleus, plasma membrane, and nuclear envelope, in which environment protein motion is modeled by fully(More)
Nucleosomes are multi-component macromolecular assemblies which present a formidable obstacle to enzymatic activities that require access to the DNA, e.g. DNA and RNA polymerases. The mechanism and pathway(s) by which nucleosomes disassemble to allow DNA access are not well understood. Here we present evidence from single molecule FRET experiments for a(More)
A new Monte Carlo model for the structure of chromatin is presented here. Based on our previous work on superhelical DNA and polynucleosomes, it reintegrates aspects of the "solenoid" and the "zig-zag" models. The DNA is modeled as a flexible elastic polymer chain, consisting of segments connected by elastic bending, torsional, and stretching springs. The(More)
Histone tails play an important role in nucleosome structure and dynamics. Here we investigate the effect of truncation of histone tails H3, H4, H2A and H2B on nucleosome structure with 100 ns all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Tail domains of H3 and H2B show propensity of α-helics formation during the intact nucleosome simulation. On truncation of H4(More)
Single plane illumination microscopy based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (SPIM-FCS) is a new method for imaging FCS in 3D samples, providing diffusion coefficients, flow velocities and concentrations in an imaging mode. Here we extend this technique to two-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (SPIM-FCCS), which allows to measure(More)
Speckles are nuclear bodies that contain pre-mRNA splicing factors and polyadenylated RNA. Because nuclear poly(A) RNA consists of both mRNA transcripts and nucleus-restricted RNAs, we tested whether poly(A) RNA in speckles is dynamic or rather an immobile, perhaps structural, component. Fluorescein-labeled oligo(dT) was introduced into HeLa cells stably(More)
A Brownian dynamics (BD) model described in the accompanying paper (Klenin, K., H. Merlitz, and J. Langowski. 1998. A Brownian dynamics program for the simulation of linear and circular DNA, and other wormlike chain polyelectrolytes. Biophys. J. 74:000-000) has been used for computing the end-to-end distance distribution function, the cyclization(More)
A coarse-grained simulation model for the nucleosome is developed, using a methodology modified from previous work on the ribosome. Protein residues and DNA nucleotides are represented as beads, interacting through harmonic (for neighboring) or Morse (for nonbonded) potentials. Force-field parameters were estimated by Boltzmann inversion of the(More)
Using small angle neutron scattering we have measured the static form factor of two different superhelical DNAs, p1868 (1868 bp) and pUC18 (2686 bp), in dilute aqueous solution at salt concentrations between 0 and 1.5 M Na+ in 10 mM Tris at 0% and 100% D2O. For both DNA molecules, the theoretical static form factor was also calculated from an ensemble of(More)