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Recent studies have shown that drugs that are normally unable to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following intravenous injection can be transported across this barrier by binding to poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles and coating with polysorbate 80. However, the mechanism of this transport so far was not known. In the present paper, the possible(More)
Drug delivery to the brain is becoming more and more important but is severely restricted by the blood-brain barrier. Nanoparticles coated with polysorbates have previously been shown to enable the transport of several drugs across the blood-brain barrier, which under normal circumstances is impermeable to these compounds. Apolipoprotein E was suggested to(More)
Transport of the hexapeptide dalargin across the blood-brain barrier was accomplished using a nanoparticle formulation. The formulation consisted of dalargin bound to poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles by sorption, coated with polysorbate 80. Intravenous injection of this formulation to mice resulted in an analgesic effect. All controls, including a(More)
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of "binge" pattern cocaine administration on dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the rat brain. Male Sprague Dawley rats were injected three times at 1 hr intervals with saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg) each day for 2, 7, or 14 d. The in vivo binding of [11C]SCH23390 (dopamine D1 receptor antagonist) and(More)
BACKGROUND Chemotherapy of glioblastoma is largely ineffective as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents entry of most anticancer agents into the brain. For an efficient treatment of glioblastomas it is necessary to deliver anti-cancer drugs across the intact BBB. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles coated with poloxamer 188 hold great(More)
Peptides normally do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Previously, it has been shown that the hexapeptide enkephalin analogue dalargin with polysorbate-80-coated nanoparticles (DAL/NP) can be transported across the BBB and is able to exhibit an antinociceptive effect in mice. In the present study, the circadian time and dose dependencies of the(More)
The nerve growth factor (NGF) is essential for the survival of both peripheral ganglion cells and central cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. The accelerated loss of central cholinergic neurons during Alzheimer's disease may be a determinant cause of dementia, and this observation may suggest a possible therapeutic benefit from treatment with NGF.(More)
Certain drugs such as dalargin, loperamide or tubocurarine are not transported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and therefore exhibit no effects on the central nervous system. However, effects on the central nervous system can be observed when these drugs are loaded onto polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA)-nanoparticles and coated with polysorbate 80. The(More)
The need for test systems for nanoparticle biocompatibility, toxicity, and inflammatory or adaptive immunological responses is paramount. Nanoparticles should be free of microbiological and chemical contaminants, and devoid of toxicity. Nevertheless, in the absence of contamination, these particles may still induce undesired immunological effects in vivo,(More)
BACKGROUND Due to the use of organophosphates (OP) as pesticides and the availability of OP-type nerve agents, an effective medical treatment for OP poisonings is still a challenging problem. The acute toxicity of an OP poisoning is mainly due to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNS). This results(More)