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Recent studies in the rat demonstrated that systemic administration of muscimol and THIP, both selective GABAA receptor agonists, elevates slow wave activity in the EEG during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. In this placebo-controlled study, we assessed the influence of an oral dose of 20 mg THIP on nocturnal sleep in young healthy humans. Compared to(More)
K-Cl co-transporters are encoded by four homologous genes and may have roles in transepithelial transport and in the regulation of cell volume and cytoplasmic chloride. KCC3, an isoform mutated in the human Anderman syndrome, is expressed in brain, epithelia and other tissues. To investigate the physiological functions of KCC3, we disrupted its gene in(More)
Autonomic cardiovascular control was characterized in conscious, chronically catheterized mice by spectral analysis of arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) during autonomic blockade or baroreflex modulation of autonomic tone. Both spectra were similar to those obtained in humans, but at approximately 10x higher frequencies. The 1/f relation of the AP(More)
To investigate the effects of the selective gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol (THIP) on sleep, vehicle or 2 or 4 mg kg-1 of THIP were randomly administered i.p. to 8 rats at light onset. EEG and EMG were recorded during the first 6 hours after injection. THIP 4 mg kg-1 transiently evoked bursts(More)
The cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 is a key mediator of the somnogenic response to immune challenge. In this vehicle-controlled study we evaluated circadian interference with the sleep-promoting effects of IL-1 beta. In two randomized experiments, rats were injected intracerebroventricularly with 5 ng IL-1 beta either at the beginning of the rest phase or at(More)
To assess the influence of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor on sleep and sleep EEG, rats were injected intraperitoneally with vehicle, two doses of muscimol (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg), a selective GABAA agonist, and midazolam (3 mg/kg), a benzodiazepine-GABAA agonist. EEG and EMG recordings were made for 6 or 8 hours. Muscimol dose-dependently(More)
1. The sleep profiles induced by agonists and agonistic modulators of gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABA[A]) receptors differ markedly. With regard to GABA(A) agonists, the effects may be due to the fact that these agents are poor substrates for uptake and are therefore likely to activate GABA(A) receptors tonically. To investigate this possibility, we assessed(More)
Recent research in rats and humans has shown that exogenous progesterone evokes a sleep profile similar to that induced by agonistic modulators of gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors, such as benzodiazepines. This finding suggests the involvement of the neuroactive metabolite of progesterone, allopregnanolone. In the vehicle-controlled study reported here,(More)
Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) is perhaps the still most enigmatic member of the neurotrophin family. We show here that NT-4 is expressed in neurons of paravertebral and prevertebral sympathetic ganglia, i.e., the superior cervical (SCG), stellate (SG), and celiac (CG) ganglion. Mice deficient for NT-4 showed a significant reduction (20-30%) of preganglionic(More)
OBJECTIVE In a sample of right-handed adults, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to reinvestigate hemispheric and sex-linked differences in Sylvian fissure (SF) morphology. BACKGROUND Asymmetries of the SF exist with a predominant leftward asymmetry consistently reported in postmortem studies. These anatomic asymmetries may reflect(More)