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Plants under attack by arthropod herbivores often emit volatile compounds from their leaves that attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Here we report the first identification of an insect-induced belowground plant signal, (E)-beta-caryophyllene, which strongly attracts an entomopathogenic nematode. Maize roots release this sesquiterpene in response to(More)
The essential oil of chamomile, one of the oldest and agronomically most important medicinal plant species in Europe, has significant antiphlogistic, spasmolytic and antimicrobial activities. It is rich in chamazulene, a pharmaceutically active compound spontaneously formed during steam distillation from the sesquiterpene lactone matricine. Chamomile oil(More)
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles have been shown to serve as indirect defence signals that attract natural enemies of herbivores. Parasitoids and predators exploit these plant-provided cues to locate their victims and several herbivores are repelled by the volatiles. Recently, benefits, in terms of plant fitness, from the action of the parasitoids were(More)
Maize (Zea mays L.) leaves damaged by lepidopteran herbivores emit a complex volatile blend that can attract natural enemies of the herbivores and may also have roles in direct defense and inter- or intra-plant signaling. The volatile blend is dominated by sesquiterpenes of which the majority is produced by two herbivore-induced terpene synthases, TPS10 and(More)
Copaifera officinalis, the diesel tree, is known for massive production of oleoresin, mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. In this study, composition of these sesquiterpenes and their concentrations in leaves, stems and roots of C. officinalis at two developmental stages, including the three-week old (TW) seedlings and two-year old (TY) trees,(More)
Greek sage (Salvia fruticosa Mill., Syn. Salvia triloba L.) is appreciated for its essential oil which is used as an aromatic spice and active against a wide range of microorganisms and viruses. The essential oil is dominated by terpenoids and flavonoids which are produced and stored in glandular trichomes on the plant surface. The present study aims to(More)
Of the three functional FPPS identified in maize, fpps3 is induced by herbivory to produce FDP important for the formation of the volatile sesquiterpenes of plant defense. Sesquiterpenes are not only crucial for the growth and development of a plant but also for its interaction with the environment. The biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes proceeds over farnesyl(More)
Terpenoids are abundant in the foliage of Eucalyptus, providing the characteristic smell as well as being valuable economically and influencing ecological interactions. Quantitative and qualitative inter- and intra- specific variation of terpenes is common in eucalypts. The genome sequences of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus were mined for terpene(More)
Phenotypic mosaic trees offer an ideal system for studying differential gene expression. We have investigated two mosaic eucalypt trees from two closely related species (Eucalyptus melliodora and E. sideroxylon), which each support two types of leaves: one part of the canopy is resistant to insect herbivory and the remaining leaves are susceptible. Driving(More)
The identification, isolation and functional characterization of two genes encoding two monoterpene synthases—γ-terpinene synthase (Tctps2) and α-terpineol synthase (Tctps5)—from three chemically distinct Thymus caespititius (Lamiaceae) genotypes were performed. Genomic exon–intron structure was also determined for both terpene synthase genes, revealing an(More)