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Plants under attack by arthropod herbivores often emit volatile compounds from their leaves that attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Here we report the first identification of an insect-induced belowground plant signal, (E)-beta-caryophyllene, which strongly attracts an entomopathogenic nematode. Maize roots release this sesquiterpene in response to(More)
Plants can defend themselves against herbivores by attracting natural enemies of the herbivores. The cues for attraction are often complex mixtures of herbivore-induced plant volatiles, making it difficult to demonstrate the role of specific compounds. After herbivory by lepidopteran larvae, maize releases a mixture of volatiles that is highly attractive to(More)
Plants have evolved intricate strategies to withstand attacks by herbivores and pathogens. Although it is known that plants change their primary and secondary metabolism in leaves to resist and tolerate aboveground attack, there is little awareness of the role of roots in these processes. This is surprising given that plant roots are responsible for the(More)
The sesquiterpene hydrocarbon chemistry of maize (Zea mays) inbred line B73 was analyzed by both direct solvent extraction and headspace sampling. In seedlings, 15 olefinic compounds were identified, and 21 olefins were detected in mature plants after anthesis. Both solvent extracts and collections of headspace terpenes were found to contain the same(More)
A mechanism that confers increased Al resistance in the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant alr-104 was investigated. A modified vibrating microelectrode system was used to measure H+ fluxes generated along the surface of small Arabidopsis roots. In the absence of Al, no differences in root H+ fluxes between wild type and alr-104 were detected. However, Al exposure(More)
Terpene synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of the complex chemical defense arsenal of plants and microorganisms. How do these enzymes, which all appear to share a common terpene synthase fold, specify the many different products made almost entirely from one of only three substrates? Elucidation of the structure of 1,8-cineole synthase from(More)
When attacked by herbivorous insects or mites, some plant species call on other arthropods for help. They emit mixtures of volatile compounds, dominated by terpenes, to attract carnivorous arthropods that prey on or parasitise herbivores and so reduce further damage. This fascinating defence strategy offers a new, environmentally friendly approach to crop(More)
The multitude of terpene carbon skeletons in plants is formed by enzymes known as terpene synthases. This review covers the monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases presenting an up-to-date list of enzymes reported and evidence for their ability to form multiple products. The reaction mechanisms of these enzyme classes are described, and information on how(More)
The sesquiterpene (E)-beta-caryophyllene is emitted by maize (Zea mays) leaves in response to attack by lepidopteran larvae like Spodoptera littoralis and released from roots after damage by larvae of the coleopteran Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. We identified a maize terpene synthase, Terpene Synthase 23 (TPS23), that produces (E)-beta-caryophyllene from(More)
The mature leaves and husks of Zea mays release a complex blend of terpene volatiles after anthesis consisting predominantly of bisabolane-, sesquithujane-, and bergamotane-type sesquiterpenes. The varieties B73 and Delprim release the same volatile constituents but in significantly different proportions. To study the molecular genetic and biochemical(More)