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Cytokines such as interleukin-6 induce tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of Stat3 that results in activation of Stat3-responsive genes. We provide evidence that Stat3 is present in the mitochondria of cultured cells and primary tissues, including the liver and heart. In Stat3(-/-) cells, the activities of complexes I and II of the electron transport chain(More)
Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 and HIF-2 are heterodimeric transcription factors mediating the cellular response to hypoxia. Recent data indicate that not only ubiquitous HIF-1 alpha, but also more cell-specific HIF-2 alpha, is an important regulator of the hypoxia response. Although both alpha subunits are highly conservative at protein level, share(More)
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the oxidation of heme to biologically active products: carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and ferrous iron. It participates in maintaining cellular homeostasis and plays an important protective role in the tissues by reducing oxidative injury, attenuating the inflammatory response, inhibiting cell apoptosis, and regulating(More)
Heme oxygenase-1, an enzyme degrading heme to carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin, has been recognized as playing a crucial role in cellular defense against stressful conditions, not only related to heme release. HO-1 protects endothelial cells from apoptosis, is involved in blood-vessel relaxation regulating vascular tone, attenuates inflammatory(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional activator that functions as a master regulator of cellular and systemic oxygen homeostasis. It consists of two constitutively produced subunits: HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta. Under normoxic conditions HIF-1alpha undergoes hydroxylation at specific prolyl residues which leads to an immediate ubiquitination(More)
OBJECTIVE Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces the release of nitric oxide (NO) from endothelial cells. There is also limited data suggesting that NO may enhance VEGF generation. METHODS To further investigate this interaction, we examined the effect of exogenous and endogenous NO on the synthesis of VEGF by rat and human vascular smooth(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to induce the release of nitric oxide (NO) from endothelial cells. However, the effect of NO on VEGF synthesis is not clear. Accordingly, the effect of endogenous and exogenous NO on VEGF synthesis by rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was investigated. Two in vitro models were used: (1) VSMCs(More)
The activity of heme oxygenase enzymes (HOs) is responsible for the endogenous source of carbon monoxide (CO). Their activities can be inhibited by tin protoporphyrin-IX (SnPPIX). Recent data indicate the involvement of HOs in the regulation of angiogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of the HO pathway in the production and angiogenic activity of(More)
Angiogenesis is indispensable for the growth of solid tumors and angiogenic factors are also involved in the progression of hematological malignancies. Targeting the formation of blood vessels is therefore regarded as a promising strategy in cancer therapy. Interestingly, besides demonstration of some beneficial effects of novel anti-angiogenic compounds,(More)
Hypoxia, cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO) stimulate the generation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in vascular tissue. HO-1 degrades heme to carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and biliverdin, the latter being reduced to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. In the present study, we investigated the role of(More)