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The ability to keep track of where we are going as we navigate through our environment requires knowledge of our ongoing location and orientation. In response to passively applied motion, the otolith organs of the vestibular system encode changes in the velocity and direction of linear self-motion (i.e., heading). When self-motion is voluntarily generated,(More)
In everyday life, vestibular sensors are activated by both self-generated and externally applied head movements. The ability to distinguish inputs that are a consequence of our own actions (i.e., active motion) from those that result from changes in the external world (i.e., passive or unexpected motion) is essential for perceptual stability and accurate(More)
Understanding how the brain processes sensory information is often complicated by the fact that neurons exhibit trial-to-trial variability in their responses to stimuli. Indeed, the role of variability in sensory coding is still highly debated. Here, we examined how variability influences neural responses to naturalistic stimuli consisting of a fast(More)
Traditionally, the neural encoding of vestibular information is studied by applying either passive rotations or translations in isolation. However, natural vestibular stimuli are typically more complex. During everyday life, our self-motion is generally not restricted to one dimension, but rather comprises both rotational and translational motion that will(More)
Efficient processing of incoming sensory input is essential for an organism's survival. A growing body of evidence suggests that sensory systems have developed coding strategies that are constrained by the statistics of the natural environment. Consequently, it is necessary to first characterize neural responses to natural stimuli to uncover the coding(More)
The vestibular system is vital for our sense of linear self-motion. At the earliest processing stages, the otolith afferents of the vestibular nerve encode linear motion. Their resting discharge regularity has long been known to span a wide range, suggesting an important role in sensory coding, yet to date, the question of how this regularity alters the(More)
It is widely believed that sensory systems are optimized for processing stimuli occurring in the natural environment. However, it remains unknown whether this principle applies to the vestibular system, which contributes to essential brain functions ranging from the most automatic reflexes to spatial perception and motor coordination. Here we quantified,(More)
The vestibular system is responsible for processing self-motion, allowing normal subjects to discriminate the direction of rotational movements as slow as 1-2 deg s(-1). After unilateral vestibular injury patients' direction-discrimination thresholds worsen to ∼20 deg s(-1), and despite some improvement thresholds remain substantially elevated following(More)
There is considerable evidence that the cerebellum has a vital role in motor learning by constructing an estimate of the sensory consequences of movement. Theory suggests that this estimate is compared with the actual feedback to compute the sensory prediction error. However, direct proof for the existence of this comparison is lacking. We carried out a(More)