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The fragile X syndrome, a common cause of inherited mental retardation, is characterized by an unusual mode of inheritance. Phenotypic expression has been linked to abnormal cytosine methylation of a single CpG island, at or very near the fragile site. Probes adjacent to this island detected very localized DNA rearrangements that constituted the fragile X(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive genetic disorder for which the biochemical defect is as yet unknown. Recently, two cloned segments of human X-chromosome DNA have been described which detect structural alterations within or near the genetic locus responsible for the disorder. Both of these cloned segments were described as tightly(More)
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a major role in a number of physiological and pathological processes. Thus, GPCRs have become the most frequent targets for development of new therapeutic drugs. In this context, the availability of highly specific antibodies may be decisive to obtain reliable findings on localization, function and medical relevance(More)
Serine proteases such as thrombin, trypsin and mast cell tryptase can act on different cell types through protease-activated receptors (PARs). These receptors have been shown to be implicated in several phenomena such as inflammation, platelet activation, immune response and atherosclerosis. Several studies recently reported PARs expression on neurons and(More)
Effector CD4(+) T lymphocytes generated in response to antigens produce endogenous opioids. Thus, in addition to their critical role in host defenses against pathogens, effector CD4(+) T lymphocytes contribute to relieving inflammatory pain. In this study, we investigated mechanisms of opioid release by antigen-experienced effector CD4(+) T cells that leave(More)
This paper describes and illustrates the application of a strategy for testing fault tolerance by means of fault injection. The proposed approach encompasses a method for modelling fault tolerance together with a strategy for testing several classes of fault tolerance mechanisms. The modelling approach distinguishes two main abstraction levels: (i) a data(More)