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Gait disturbances are frequent and disabling in advanced Parkinson's disease. These symptoms respond poorly to usual medical and surgical treatments but were reported to be improved by stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus. We studied the effects of stimulating the pedunculopontine nucleus area in six patients with severe freezing of gait,(More)
Two parkinsonian patients who experienced transient hypomanic states when the subthalamic nucleus (STN) was stimulated during postoperative adjustment of the electrical parameters for antiparkinsonian therapy agreed to have the mood disorder reproduced, in conjunction with motor, cognitive, and behavioral evaluations and concomitant functional neuroimaging.(More)
The aim of the present study was to characterize the dopaminergic innervation of the pallidum in primates (humans and Cercopithecus aethiops). Firstly, in monkeys, biotin dextran amine was injected into dopaminergic areas, and the anterogradely labelled axons were reconstructed from serial sections and analysed in the pallidum. Secondly, in parkinsonian(More)
In neurosurgery, localisation of deep brain structures is a crucial issue, which can be assisted by a 3-dimensional brain atlases. Our goal is to build such an atlas by fusing histological data with a 3D MR image of the same subject. This requires two steps: first a 2D realignment of the histological sections in order to obtain a three-dimensional block,(More)
This paper describes the construction of an atlas of the human basal ganglia. The successive steps of the construction were as follows. First a postmortem specimen was subjected to a MRI acquisition prior to extraction of the brain from the skull. The brain was then cryosectioned (70 microm thickness). One section out of ten (80 sections) was Nissl-stained(More)
The present paper is a Golgi study, with high-power lenses, of the primate globus pallidus. Two kinds of inconstant processes of large neurons are first described: complex endings and thin processes. Complex endings are thick apparatuses terminally located on dendrites having many appendages of various types. Contacts were observed not only between striatal(More)
The striatopallidonigral connection was studied by injecting anterograde tracers into either the associative or the sensorimotor striatum in ten macaques. The results were analyzed using a precise cartographic method. Injections into various parts of the associative striatum (caudate nucleus and ventromedial putamen) produced a labeling of axons in the(More)
The functional parcellation of the motor thalamus of primates has suffered from serious historical and technical drawbacks, which have led to extreme confusion. This is a problem when thalamic stereotaxy is again being use clinically. The cause usually imputed is the historical conflict between two main schools, the Vogt and the 'Anglo-American' (Michigan),(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although the subthalamic nucleus is the most frequently used target for surgical treatment of Parkinson's disease, the criteria on which it can be identified on T2-weighted images have never been clearly defined. This study was conducted to characterize the precise anatomic distribution of T2-weighted hyposignal in the subthalamic(More)
The existence of a dopaminergic innervation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been demonstrated in rats but has remained controversial in primates. The aim of the present study was first to demonstrate the existence of a dopaminergic innervation of the STN in monkeys using tracing methods and then to quantify the loss of dopaminergic fibers in the(More)