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Dengue virus (DENV) causes the major arboviral disease of the tropics, characterized in its severe forms by signs of hemorrhage and plasma leakage. DENV encodes a nonstructural glycoprotein, NS1, that associates with intracellular membranes and the cell surface. NS1 is eventually secreted as a soluble hexamer from DENV-infected cells and circulates in the(More)
Cellular immunity is likely to be of major importance for the clearance of inapparent or overt infections caused by human papillomaviruses (HPVs). The highly polymorphic class I or class II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules present HPV-derived peptides to cytotoxic (CD8+) or helper (CD4+) T lymphocytes bearing specific receptors and condition the(More)
BACKGROUND The immune-related evolution of influenza viruses is exceedingly complex and current vaccines against influenza must be reformulated for each influenza season because of the high degree of antigenic drift among circulating influenza strains. Delay in vaccine production is a serious problem in responding to a pandemic situation, such as that of(More)
We previously observed that warts induced by an isolate of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) showed incomplete instead of systemic regression in some domestic rabbits. We report that the viral isolate contained, as a major component, a CRPV strain (CRPVb) showing an unexpectedly high divergence in the E6 and E7 open reading frames (ORFs), compared to(More)
Epitopes from all available full-length sequences of yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue fever virus (DENV) restricted by Human Leukocyte Antigen class I (HLA-I) alleles covering 12 HLA-I supertypes were predicted using the NetCTL algorithm. A subset of 179 predicted YFV and 158 predicted DENV epitopes were selected using the EpiSelect algorithm to allow(More)
Epitope-based vaccines provide a new strategy for prophylactic and therapeutic application of pathogen-specific immunity. A critical requirement of this strategy is the identification and selection of T-cell epitopes that act as vaccine targets. This study describes current methodologies for the selection process, with dengue virus as a model system. A(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic variation and rapid evolution are hallmarks of RNA viruses, the result of high mutation rates in RNA replication and selection of mutants that enhance viral adaptation, including the escape from host immune responses. Variability is uneven across the genome because mutations resulting in a deleterious effect on viral fitness are(More)
We previously reported the partial characterization of two cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) subtypes with strikingly divergent E6 and E7 oncoproteins. We report now the complete nucleotide sequences of these subtypes, referred to as CRPVa4 (7,868 nucleotides) and CRPVb (7,867 nucleotides). The CRPVa4 and CRPVb genomes differed at 238 (3%) nucleotide(More)