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Cathepsins and caspases are two families of proteases that play pivotal roles in ischemic cell death. This study investigated the existence of a cross-talk between cathepsin B and proinflammatory caspases in stroke-induced cell death, as recently suggested by in vitro data. Cortical ischemic damage was induced in mice by distal and permanent occlusion of(More)
Caspases play a major role in the infarction process that follows occlusion of cerebral arteries and are important targets for stroke therapy. We have generated three fusion proteins that link various domains of the X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), a potent caspase inhibitor, to the protein transduction domain (PTD) of HIV-1/Tat, and have(More)
A number of studies have validated the importance of caspase activation in ischemia-induced brain damage. Caspases participate in both the initiation and execution phases of apoptosis, and play a central role in neuronal death after global cerebral ischemia. In focal ischemia, apoptosis occurs in the penumbra during the secondary phase of expansion of the(More)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by synaptic failure, dendritic and axonal atrophy, neuronal death and progressive loss of cognitive functions. It is commonly assumed that these deficits arise due to β-amyloid accumulation and plaque deposition. However, increasing evidence indicates that loss of physiological APP functions mediated predominantly(More)
Abnormalities in neuronal cholesterol homeostasis have been suspected or observed in several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. However, it has not been demonstrated whether an increased abundance of cholesterol in neurons in vivo contributes to neurodegeneration. To address this issue,(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by both amyloid and Tau pathologies. The amyloid component and altered cholesterol metabolism are closely linked, but the relationship between Tau pathology and cholesterol is currently unclear. Brain cholesterol is synthesized in situ and cannot cross the blood-brain barrier: to be exported from the central nervous(More)
Alterations in excitatory-inhibitory balance occur in Down syndrome and could be responsible for cognitive deficits observed through the life of all individuals carrying an extra copy of chromosome 21. Excess of inhibition in the adult could produce synaptic plasticity deficits that may be a primary mechanism contributing to learning and memory impairments.(More)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most frequent form of dementia in the elderly and no effective treatment is currently available. The mechanisms triggering AD onset and progression are still imperfectly dissected. We aimed at deciphering the modifications occurring in vivo during the very early stages of AD, before the development of amyloid deposits,(More)
Interleukin-2 (IL-2)-deficient mice have cytoarchitectural hippocampal modifications and impaired learning and memory ability reminiscent of Alzheimer's disease. IL-2 stimulates regulatory T cells whose role is to control inflammation. As neuroinflammation contributes to neurodegeneration, we investigated IL-2 in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we(More)
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