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Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of many developmental processes. In vertebrates little is yet known on the patterns of PCD and its role during the early phases of development, when embryonic tissue layers migrate and pattern formation takes place. We describe the spatio-temporal patterns of cell death during early Xenopus development, from(More)
Mre11 complex promotes repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Xenopus Mre11 (X-Mre11) has been cloned, and its role in DNA replication and DNA damage checkpoint studied in cell-free extracts. DSBs stimulate the phosphorylation and 3'-5' exonuclease activity of X-Mre11 complex. This induced phosphorylation is ATM independent. Phosphorylated X-Mre11 is(More)
Highly purified maturation-promoting factor (MPF) from Xenopus eggs contains both cyclin B1 and cyclin B2 as shown by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation using Xenopus anti-B-type cyclin antibodies. Immunoprecipitates with these antibodies display the histone H1 kinase activity characteristic of MPF, for which exogenously added B1 and B2 cyclins are(More)
Genetic studies in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe have established that a critical element required for the G2----M-phase transition in the cell cycle is encoded by the cdc2+ gene. The product of this gene is a serine/threonine protein kinase, designated p34cdc, that is highly conserved functionally from yeast to man2 and has a relative(More)
The Eg1 gene in Xenopus laevis is related in sequence to the cdc2+ gene. We show here that the Eg1 gene product (cdk2) possesses histone H1 protein kinase activity and binds to PSTAIR antibodies as well as to Sepharose beads linked to the 13-kDa product of the suc 1 gene (p13suc1). Eg1 protein kinase is active only in an Mr approximately 200,000 complex(More)
Using a polyclonal antibody raised against B2 cyclin from Xenopus laevis, we show that prophase-arrested Xenopus oocytes contain a stockpile of cyclin B2 protein. During progesterone-induced maturation, an increase in the synthesis of cyclin B2 is observed, although Western blotting experiments show that this new synthesis does not significantly increase(More)
In the fission yeast S. pombe, the Mr = 34 kd product of the cdc2+ gene (p34cdc2) is a protein kinase that controls entry into mitosis. In Xenopus oocytes and other cells, maturation-promoting factor (MPF) appears in late G2 phase and is able to cause entry into mitosis. Purified MPF consists of two major proteins of Mr approximately equal to 32 kd and 45(More)
Mammalian growth-associated H1 histone kinase, an enzyme whose activity is sharply elevated at mitosis, is similar to cdc2+ protein kinase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and CDC28 protein kinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with respect to immunoreactivity, molecular size, and specificity for phosphorylation sites in H1 histone. Phosphorylation of specific(More)
Maturation-promoting factor (MPF) is a cell cycle control element able to cause metaphase when injected into amphibian oocytes or when incubated with nuclei in a cell-free system. Highly purified MPF consists of a complex between a 34K (K = 10(3) Mr) serine/threonine protein kinase, identified as a Xenopus homolog of the cdc2+ gene product, p34cdc2, and a(More)
We have analyzed the role of cell death during early Xenopus development and have identified two distinct types of cell death programs during the period between fertilization and the tadpole stage. One is a maternal cell death program that is activated at the onset of gastrulation following damage to the pre-midblastula transition embryo, resulting in the(More)