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The results presented herein demonstrate that apelin is expressed and secreted by both human and mouse adipocytes. Apelin mRNA levels in isolated adipocytes are close to other cell types present in white adipose tissue or other organs known to express apelin such as kidney, heart, and to a lesser extent brown adipose tissue. Apelin expression is increased(More)
Obesity, especially central obesity, is a hereditable trait associated with a high risk for development of diabetes and metabolic disorders. Combined gene expression analysis of adipocyte- and preadipocyte-containing fractions from intraabdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue of mice revealed coordinated depot-specific differences in expression of(More)
Excess adipose tissue is associated with metabolic disease and reduced life span, whereas caloric restriction decreases these risks. Here we show that as mice age, there is downregulation of Dicer and miRNA processing in adipose tissue resulting in decreases of multiple miRNAs. A similar decline of Dicer with age is observed in C. elegans. This is prevented(More)
Environmental factors, such as the macronutrient composition of the diet, can have a profound impact on risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In the present study we demonstrate how a single, simple dietary factor--leucine--can modify insulin resistance by acting on multiple tissues and at multiple levels of metabolism. Mice were placed on a normal or(More)
Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) have important roles in adipocyte differentiation, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Here to assess how these pathways can compensate for each other, we created mice with a double tissue-specific knockout of insulin and IGF-1 receptors to eliminate all insulin/IGF-1 signalling in fat. These FIGIRKO(More)
Autotaxin is a lysophospholipase D that is secreted by adipocytes and whose expression is substantially up-regulated in obese, diabetic db/db mice. The aim of the present study was to depict the physiopathological and cellular mechanisms involved in regulation of adipocyte autotaxin expression. Autotaxin mRNAs were quantified in adipose tissue from db/db(More)
Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) act as antiapoptotic hormones. We found that, unexpectedly, double-knockout (DKO) cells that lacked both insulin and IGF-1 receptors (IR and IGF1R, respectively) were resistant to apoptosis induced through either the intrinsic or the extrinsic pathway. This resistance to apoptosis was associated with(More)
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue, but the role for adipose tissue mitochondria in the development of these disorders is currently unknown. To understand the impact of adipose tissue mitochondria on whole-body metabolism, we have generated a mouse model with disruption of the mitochondrial(More)
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)1 catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) synthesis and plays an important role in the development of obesity. SCD1 is suppressed by leptin but induced by insulin. We have used animal models to dissect the effects of these hormones on SCD1. In the first model, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice were(More)
Conditional gene targeting has been extensively used for in vivo analysis of gene function in adipocyte cell biology but often with debate over the tissue specificity and the efficacy of inactivation. To directly compare the specificity and efficacy of different Cre lines in mediating adipocyte specific recombination, transgenic Cre lines driven by the(More)