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A central and long-standing issue in evolutionary theory is the origin of the biological variation upon which natural selection acts. Some hypotheses suggest that evolutionary change represents an adaptation to the surrounding environment within the constraints of an organism's innate characteristics. Elucidation of the origin and evolutionary relationship(More)
In this paper we emphasize that sampling decisions in population and community ecology are context dependent. Thus, the selection of an appropriate sampling procedure should follow directly from considerations of the objectives of an investigation. We recognize eight sampling alternatives, which arise as a result of three basic dichotomies: parameter(More)
The use of mathematical methods based on Shannon's entropy function is proposed for the evaluation of the consequences of sampling unit size and for the study of vegetation succession. The concept of diversity is extended to sets of phytosociological relevés under the term florula diversity. It is shown that Shannon's entropy as well as two other related(More)
Functional diversity is regarded as a key in understanding the link between ecosystem function and biodiversity, but its measurement is rather problematic. The two widely used continuous measures are the dendrogram-based measure (DBM) and the functional attribute diversity (FAD). In contrast to DBM, FAD does not require the knowledge of the entire species(More)
Although several studies have examined the functional diversity of freshwater macroinvertebrates, the variety of methodologies combined with the absence of a synthetic review make our understanding of this field incomplete. Therefore, we reviewed the current methodology for assessing functional diversity in freshwater macroinvertebrate research. Our review(More)
Fibrous dysplasia is an isolated skeletal disorder caused by a somatic activating mutation of GNAS gene with abnormal unmineralized matrix overproduction and extensive undifferentiated bone cell accumulation in the fibro-osseous lesions. The aim of our investigation was to identify genes that are differently expressed in fibrous versus non-fibrous human(More)
To identify genes that are differently expressed in osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic human bone and to describe the relationships between these genes using multivariate data analysis. Seven bone tissue samples from postmenopausal osteoporotic patients and 10 bone tissue samples from postmenopausal non-osteoporotic women were examined in our study.(More)
The functional interaction between the immune system and bone metabolism has been established at both molecular and cellular levels. We have used non-parametric and multidimensional expression pattern analyses to determine significantly changed mRNA profile of immune system-associated genes in postmenopausal osteoporotic (OP) vs. non-osteoporotic (NOP) bone(More)
Osteoporosis attacks 10% of the population worldwide. Humans or even the model animals of the disease cannot recover from porous bone. Regeneration in skeletal elements is the unique feature of our newly investigated osteoporosis model, the red deer (Cervus elaphus) stag. Cyclic physiological osteoporosis is a consequence of the annual antler cycle. This(More)