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A central and long-standing issue in evolutionary theory is the origin of the biological variation upon which natural selection acts. Some hypotheses suggest that evolutionary change represents an adaptation to the surrounding environment within the constraints of an organism's innate characteristics. Elucidation of the origin and evolutionary relationship(More)
Although several studies have examined the functional diversity of freshwater macroinvertebrates, the variety of methodologies combined with the absence of a synthetic review make our understanding of this field incomplete. Therefore, we reviewed the current methodology for assessing functional diversity in freshwater macroinvertebrate research. Our review(More)
Fibrous dysplasia is an isolated skeletal disorder caused by a somatic activating mutation of GNAS gene with abnormal unmineralized matrix overproduction and extensive undifferentiated bone cell accumulation in the fibro-osseous lesions. The aim of our investigation was to identify genes that are differently expressed in fibrous versus non-fibrous human(More)
Osteoporosis attacks 10% of the population worldwide. Humans or even the model animals of the disease cannot recover from porous bone. Regeneration in skeletal elements is the unique feature of our newly investigated osteoporosis model, the red deer (Cervus elaphus) stag. Cyclic physiological osteoporosis is a consequence of the annual antler cycle. This(More)
PURPOSE To identify genes that are differently expressed in osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic human bone and to describe the relationships between these genes using multivariate data analysis. METHODS Seven bone tissue samples from postmenopausal osteoporotic patients and 10 bone tissue samples from postmenopausal non-osteoporotic women were examined in(More)
OBJECTIVE Tocilizumab, a humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, has recently been approved as a biological therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other diseases. It is not known if there are characteristic changes in gene expression and immunoglobulin G glycosylation during therapy or in response to treatment. METHODS Global gene(More)
Traits-based community analyses are receiving increasing attention. However, consistent interpretation of empirical results and ecological understanding in stream ecology are limited by ambiguous terminology. Furthermore, the measurement scales used to analyze trait data, especially ordinal-scale data, are often inappropriately applied. We identify and(More)
A novel discrete mathematical approach is proposed as an additional tool for molecular systematics which does not require prior statistical assumptions concerning the evolutionary process. The method is based on algorithms generating mathematical representations directly from DNA/RNA or protein sequences, followed by the output of numerical (scalar or(More)
This short communication includes comments on a single sentence cited from a recent paper by C. Ricotta. I discuss shortly the relationship between diversity and classification as well as the possibility of expressing diversity for continuous variables. A simple example shows that the notion of diversity can be expanded to situations without an underlying(More)