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According to a recently proposed hypothesis, initiation of signal transduction via immunoreceptors depends on interactions of the engaged immunoreceptor with glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains (GEMs). In this study, we describe a novel GEM-associated transmembrane adaptor protein, termed phosphoprotein associated with GEMs (PAG). PAG comprises(More)
Assembly of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, which present antigen in the form of short peptides to T lymphocytes, occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum; once assembled, these molecules travel from the endoplasmic reticulum to their final destination. MHC class II molecules follow a route that takes them by means of the endocytic pathway,(More)
Marginal zone (MZ) B cells play a major role in the first-line responses against blood-born T-independent bacterial antigens (TI), but the full scope of their immune functions is not known. Here we compare the responses of MZ and follicular (FO) B cells to a T-dependent antigen (TD), hapten-(4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NP) coupled to chicken(More)
Interaction of Ag-loaded dendritic cells with Ag-specific CD4 T cells induces the formation of long tubular class II MHC-positive compartments that polarize toward the T cell. We show involvement of a Toll-like receptor-mediated signal in this unusual form of intracellular class II MHC trafficking. First, wild-type dendritic cells loaded with LPS-free Ag(More)
The immune system of aged individuals often produces antibodies that have lower affinity and are less protective than antibodies from young individuals. Recent studies in mice suggested that antibodies produced by old individuals may be encoded by distinct immunoglobulin (Ig) genes and that the somatic hypermutation process in these individuals is(More)
The development of memory B cells takes place in germinal centers (GC) of lymphoid follicles where antigen-driven lymphocytes undergo somatic hypermutation and affinity selection, presumably under the influence of helper T cells. However, the mechanisms that drive this complex response are not well understood. We explored the relationship between GC(More)
Neoplastic epithelia may remain dormant and clinically unapparent in human patients for decades. Multiple risk factors including mutations in tumor cells or the stromal cells may affect the switch from dormancy to malignancy. Gene mutations, including p53 mutations, within the stroma of tumors are associated with a worse clinical prognosis; however, it is(More)
Activation of naive CD4 T cells by dendritic cells requires the sequential interaction of many TCR molecules with peptide-class II complexes of the appropriate specificity. Such interaction results in morphological transformation of class II MHC-containing endosomal compartments. In this study, we analyze the requirements for long tubular endosomal(More)