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'Florigen' was proposed 75 years ago to be synthesized in the leaf and transported to the shoot apex, where it induces flowering. Only recently have genetic and biochemical studies established that florigen is encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), a gene that is universally conserved in higher plants. Nonetheless, the exact function of florigen during floral(More)
Lectin-like, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor 1, LOX-1, is the major receptor for oxidized LDL (OxLDL) in endothelial cells. We have determined the crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of LOX-1, with a short stalk region connecting the domain to the membrane-spanning region, as a homodimer linked by an interchain disulfide bond. In(More)
In vertebrates, the biological consequences of DNA methylation are often mediated by protein factors containing conserved methyl-CpG binding domains (MBDs). Mutations in the MBD protein MeCP2 cause the neurodevelopmental disease Rett syndrome. We report here the solution structure of the MBD of the human methylation-dependent transcriptional regulator MBD1(More)
MBD1 is a mammalian protein that binds symmetrically methylated CpG sequences and regulates gene expression in association with DNA methylation. This protein possesses a conserved sequence, named methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD), among a family of methyl-CpG binding proteins that mediate the biological consequences of the methylation. In addition, MBD1 has(More)
CpG methylation in vertebrates is important for gene silencing, alterations in chromatin structure and genomic stability, and differences in the DNA-methylation status are correlated with imprinting phenomena, carcinogenesis and embryonic development. Methylation signals are interpreted by protein factors that contain shared methyl-CpG-binding domains(More)
Interleukin-18 (IL-18), a cytokine formerly known as interferon-gamma- (IFN-gamma-) inducing factor, has pleiotropic immunoregulatory functions, including augmentation of IFN-gamma production, Fas-mediated cytotoxicity and developmental regulation of T-lymphocyte helper type I. We determined the solution structure of IL-18 as a first step toward(More)
Ubiquitination, a modification in which single or multiple ubiquitin molecules are attached to a protein, serves signaling functions that control several cellular processes. The ubiquitination signal is recognized by downstream effectors, many of which carry a ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM). Such interactions can be modulated by regulators carrying a(More)
In the 1930s, the flowering hormone, florigen, was proposed to be synthesized in leaves under inductive day length and transported to the shoot apex, where it induces flowering. More recently, generated genetic and biochemical data suggest that florigen is a protein encoded by the gene, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). A rice (Oryza sativa) FT homolog, Hd3a,(More)
An Escherichia coli sensor kinase, ArcB, transfers a phosphoryl group to a partner response regulator in response to anaerobic conditions. Multidimensional NMR techniques were applied to determine the solution structure of the histidine-containing phosphotransfer signaling domain of ArcB (HPt(ArcB)), which has a phosphorylation site, His717. The backbone(More)
The methyl-CpG dinucleotide containing a symmetrical 5-methylcytosine (mC) is involved in gene regulation and genome stability. We report here that methylation-mediated transcriptional repressor methylated DNA-binding domain 1 (MBD1) interacts with methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG), which excises damaged bases from substrate DNA. MPG itself actively(More)