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Inheritance of APOE alleles is associated with varying clinical outcomes in several neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with innate immune response in brain. We tested the hypothesis that inheritance of different APOE alleles would significantly modulate neurotoxicity arising from glial innate immune response. We first used dissociated cultures(More)
BACKGROUND Innate immune activation, including a role for cluster of differentiation 14/toll-like receptor 4 co-receptors (CD14/TLR-4) co-receptors, has been implicated in paracrine damage to neurons in several neurodegenerative diseases that also display stratification of risk or clinical outcome with the common alleles of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE):(More)
BACKGROUND Inheritance of the three different alleles of the human apolipoprotein (apo) E gene (APOE) are associated with varying risk or clinical outcome from a variety of neurologic diseases. ApoE isoform-specific modulation of several pathogenic processes, in addition to amyloid beta metabolism in Alzheimer's disease, have been proposed: one of these is(More)
MECP2, an X-linked gene encoding the epigenetic factor methyl-CpG-binding protein-2, is mutated in Rett syndrome (RTT) and aberrantly expressed in autism. Most children affected by RTT are heterozygous Mecp2-/+ females whose brain function is impaired postnatally due to MeCP2 deficiency. While prior functional investigations of MeCP2 have focused(More)
Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is characterized by neurodegeneration secondary to impaired cholesterol trafficking and excessive glycosphingolipid storage. Abnormal cholesterol and ganglioside metabolism may influence the generation and aggregation of amyloidogenic fragments (ie, C99 and Abeta) from amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP), crucial factors(More)
Neuroinflammation and associated neuronal dysfunction mediated by activated microglia play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Microglia are activated by aggregated forms of amyloid-β protein (Aβ), usually demonstrated in vitro by stimulating microglia with micromolar concentrations of fibrillar Aβ, a major component of amyloid(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND Mutations in MECP2 encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) cause the X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome. Rett syndrome patients exhibit neurological symptoms that include irregular breathing, impaired mobility, stereotypic hand movements, and loss of speech. MeCP2 protein epigenetically modulates gene(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive and global loss of cognitive functions. Pathological features include a loss of neurons in vulnerable brain regions and the extracellular deposition of abnormal protein aggregates known as amyloid plaques. Amyloid-beta protein (A beta is the major(More)
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding MeCP2, an epigenetic modulator that binds the methyl CpG dinucleotide in target genes to regulate transcription. Previously, we and others reported a role of microglia in the pathophysiology of RTT. To understand the mechanism of microglia(More)
MECP2, an X-linked gene encoding the epigenetic factor methyl-CpG-binding protein-2, is mutated in Rett syndrome (RTT) and aberrantly expressed in autism. Most children affected by RTT are heterozygous Mecp2(-/+) females whose brain function is impaired postnatally due to MeCP2 deficiency. Recent studies suggest a role of glia in causing neuronal(More)