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BACKGROUND Gut microbiota affects host homeostasis and dysbiosis causes host diseases. Therefore, uncovering the sensing mechanism of bacterial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) may help us to understand the host-microbiota interaction both in physiological and nonphysiological conditions. SUMMARY The colonic lumen is continually exposed(More)
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a multifunctional hormone in glucose metabolism and intestinal function released by enteroendocrine L-cells. The plasma concentration of GLP-1 is increased by indigestible carbohydrates and luminal infusion of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). However, the triggers and modulators of the GLP-1 release remain unclear. We(More)
In gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, anion and fluid secretion is an important function for host defense and is induced by changes in the luminal environment. The transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channel is considered to be a chemosensor in several sensory tissues. Although the function of TRPA1 has been studied in GI motility, its contribution to(More)
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the major anions in the large intestine. They are produced by a bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber. SCFAs are known to have a variety of physiological and pathphysiological effects on intestine. However, the mechanisms by which intraluminal SCFAs are sensed are not known. In 2003, two orphan G protein coupled(More)
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS We studied the intestinotrophic hormone glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) as a possible therapy for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced intestinal ulcers. Luminal nutrients release endogenous GLP-2 from enteroendocrine L cells. Since GLP-2 is degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), we hypothesized that DPPIV(More)
KEY POINTS Luminal lipid in the duodenum modulates gastroduodenal functions via the release of gut hormones and mediators such as cholecystokinin and 5-HT. The effects of luminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the foregut are unknown. Free fatty acid receptors (FFARs) for long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and SCFAs are expressed in enteroendocrine cells.(More)
Gut lumen is continually exposed to a great variety of agents, including noxious compounds. Chemical receptors that detect the luminal environment are thought to play an important role as sensors and to modulate gastrointestinal functions. Recently, it has been reported that odorant receptors (ORs) are expressed in the small intestinal mucosa and that(More)
The gastrointestinal mucosa is exposed to numerous chemical substances and microorganisms, including macronutrients, micronutrients, bacteria, endogenous ions, and proteins. The regulation of mucosal protection, digestion, absorption and motility is signaled in part by luminal solutes. Therefore, luminal chemosensing is an important mechanism enabling the(More)
Taste transduction molecules, such as Galpha(gust), and taste receptor families for bitter [taste receptor type 2 (T2R)], sweet, and umami, have previously been identified in taste buds and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract; however, their physiological functions in GI tissues are still unclear. Here, we investigated the physiological function and expression(More)
Bacterial or ingested food-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are present in the duodenal lumen. Acetate, the most abundant SCFA in the foregut lumen, is absorbed immediately after ingestion, although the mechanism by which this absorption occurs is not fully understood. We investigated the distribution and function of candidate SCFA transporters in(More)