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Sir2 is a NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase that extends lifespan in yeast and worms. This study examines seven human proteins homologous to Sir2 (SIRT1 through SIRT7) for cellular localization, expression profiles, protein deacetylation activity, and effects on human cell lifespan. We found that: 1) three nuclear SIRT proteins (SIRT1, SIRT6, and SIRT7)(More)
Activation of telomerase is one of the rate-limiting steps in human cell immortalization and carcinogenesis Human telomerase is composed of at least two protein subunits and an RNA component. Regulation of expression of the catalytic subunit, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), is suggested as the major determinant of the enzymatic activity. We(More)
The cellular senescence program is controlled by multiple genetic pathways, one of which involves the regulation of telomerase and telomere shortening. The introduction of a normal human chromosome 3 into the human renal cell carcinoma cell line RCC23 caused repression of telomerase activity, progressive shortening of telomeres, and restoration of the(More)
Fifteen percent of lung cancer cases occur in never-smokers and show characteristics that are molecularly and clinically distinct from those in smokers. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations, which are correlated with sensitivity to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), are more frequent in never-smoker lung cancers. In this study,(More)
Humans and animals undergo ageing, and although their primary cells undergo cellular senescence in culture, the relationship between these two processes is unclear. Here we show that gamma-H2AX foci (gamma-foci), which reveal DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), accumulate in senescing human cell cultures and in ageing mice. They colocalize with DSB repair(More)
Regulation of the hTERT gene encoding the telomerase catalytic subunit plays an important role in human cell senescence, immortalization, and carcinogenesis. By examining the activity of various deleted or mutated hTERT promoter fragments, we show that an E-box element downstream of the transcription initiation site is critical to differential hTERT(More)
The E6 and E7 oncogenes of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) are sufficient for the immortalization of human genital keratinocytes in vitro. The products of these viral genes associate with p53 and pRb tumor suppressor proteins, respectively, and interfere with their normal growth-regulatory functions. The HPV-16 E6 protein has also been shown to(More)
The promoter of the hTERT gene encoding the catalytic subunit of telomerase was recently cloned and has a dense CG-rich CpG island, suggesting a role for methylation in regulation of hTERT expression. In this study, we have initiated the analysis of the regulation of hTERT expression by examining the methylation status of up to 72 CpG sites extending from(More)
Nutlin-3, an MDM2 inhibitor, activates p53, resulting in several types of cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. Although p53 is mutated or deleted in approximately 50% of all cancers, p53 is still functionally active in the other 50%. Consequently, nutlin-3 and similar drugs could be candidates for neoadjuvant therapy in cancers with a functional p53. Cellular(More)
The telomere-capping complex shelterin protects functional telomeres and prevents the initiation of unwanted DNA-damage-response pathways. At the end of cellular replicative lifespan, uncapped telomeres lose this protective mechanism and DNA-damage signalling pathways are triggered that activate p53 and thereby induce replicative senescence. Here, we(More)