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Sir2 is a NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase that extends lifespan in yeast and worms. This study examines seven human proteins homologous to Sir2 (SIRT1 through SIRT7) for cellular localization, expression profiles, protein deacetylation activity, and effects on human cell lifespan. We found that: 1) three nuclear SIRT proteins (SIRT1, SIRT6, and SIRT7)(More)
Activation of telomerase is one of the rate-limiting steps in human cell immortalization and carcinogenesis Human telomerase is composed of at least two protein subunits and an RNA component. Regulation of expression of the catalytic subunit, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), is suggested as the major determinant of the enzymatic activity. We(More)
Nutlin-3, an MDM2 inhibitor, activates p53, resulting in several types of cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. Although p53 is mutated or deleted in approximately 50% of all cancers, p53 is still functionally active in the other 50%. Consequently, nutlin-3 and similar drugs could be candidates for neoadjuvant therapy in cancers with a functional p53. Cellular(More)
Malignant transformation from mortal, normal cells to immortal, cancer cells is generally associated with activation of telomerase and subsequent telomere maintenance. A major mechanism to regulate telomerase activity in human cells is transcriptional control of the telomerase catalytic subunit gene, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Several(More)
ING2 (inhibitor of growth family, member 2) is a member of the plant homeodomain (PHD)-containing ING family of putative tumor suppressors. As part of mSin3A-HDAC corepressor complexes, ING2 binds to tri-methylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me3) to regulate chromatin modification and gene expression. ING2 also functionally interacts with the tumor(More)
The promoter of the hTERT gene encoding the catalytic subunit of telomerase was recently cloned and has a dense CG-rich CpG island, suggesting a role for methylation in regulation of hTERT expression. In this study, we have initiated the analysis of the regulation of hTERT expression by examining the methylation status of up to 72 CpG sites extending from(More)
The E6 and E7 oncogenes of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) are sufficient for the immortalization of human genital keratinocytes in vitro. The products of these viral genes associate with p53 and pRb tumor suppressor proteins, respectively, and interfere with their normal growth-regulatory functions. The HPV-16 E6 protein has also been shown to(More)
BACKGROUND Cellular senescence is a state reached by normal mammalian cells after a finite number of cell divisions and is characterized by morphological and physiological changes including terminal cell-cycle arrest. The limits on cell division imposed by senescence may play an important role in both organismal aging and in preventing tumorigenesis.(More)
Bidirectional interactions between astrocytes and neurons have physiological roles in the central nervous system and an altered state or dysfunction of such interactions may be associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Astrocytes exert structural, metabolic and functional effects on(More)
Regulation of the hTERT gene encoding the telomerase catalytic subunit plays an important role in human cell senescence, immortalization, and carcinogenesis. By examining the activity of various deleted or mutated hTERT promoter fragments, we show that an E-box element downstream of the transcription initiation site is critical to differential hTERT(More)