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The Albin-DeLong 'box and arrow' model has long been the accepted standard model for the basal ganglia network. However, advances in physiological and anatomical research have enabled a more detailed neural network approach. Recent computational models hold that the basal ganglia use reinforcement signals and local competitive learning rules to reduce the(More)
Recording of multiple neurons from a single electrode is common practice during extra-cellular recordings. Separation and sorting of spikes originating from the different neurons can be performed either on-line or off-line using multiple methods for pattern matching. However, all spike sorting techniques fail either fully or partially in identifying spikes(More)
Previous physiological studies have revealed changes in firing rates and synchronization of pallidal neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) primate model of Parkinson's disease. Several primate and human studies have demonstrated that dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) reverses the changes in the pallidal firing rates; however,(More)
Autocorrelation functions are a major tool for the understanding of single-cell firing patterns. Short-term peaks in autocorrelation functions have previously been interpreted as a tendency towards bursting activity or elevated probability to emit spikes in a short time-scale. These peaks can actually be a result of the firing of a neuron with a refractory(More)
In the normal brain beta band oscillatory activity has been associated with retaining of ongoing motor activities. In Parkinson's disease, enhanced beta band oscillatory activity is displayed across the cortico-basal ganglia pathway and is one of the prominent neurophysiological phenomena associated with the disorder. Intraoperative and postoperative(More)
The emergence of oscillations and synchrony among neurons of the basal ganglia is a well-known characteristic of Parkinson's disease. In this study we used intra-operative microelectrode recording to investigate this interrelationship between these two phenomena in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons of 39 human Parkinson's disease patients undergoing(More)
Modeling of the basal ganglia has played a major role in our understanding of this elusive group of nuclei. Models of the basal ganglia have undergone evolutionary and revolutionary changes over the last 20 years, as new research in the fields of anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of these nuclei has yielded new information. Early models dealt with a(More)
Current physiological studies emphasize the role of neuronal oscillations and synchronization in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; however, little is known about their specific roles in the neuronal substrate of dopamine replacement therapy (DRT). We investigated oscillatory activity and correlations throughout the different states of(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a well-established therapy for patients with severe Parkinson's disease (PD); however, its mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study we explored static and dynamic activation patterns in the basal ganglia (BG) during high-frequency macro-stimulation of the STN. Extracellular(More)
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a major target for treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease patients undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery. Microelectrode recording (MER) is used in many cases to identify the target nucleus. A real-time procedure for identifying the entry and exit points of the STN would improve the outcome of this targeting(More)