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Dopamine is an important retinal neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that regulates key diurnal cellular and physiological functions. In the present study we carried out a comprehensive analysis of dopamine metabolism during the light phase of the diurnal cycle and evaluated the presence of diurnal and circadian rhythms of dopaminergic activity in the mouse(More)
Homozygous 020/A mutant mice bearing the rds gene for slow inherited retinal degeneration have been observed to develop normal photoreceptor inner segments connecting cilia and synaptic contacts but fail to form outer segments. Their retinas are responsive to light, however. In order to assess the sources of these physiological responses we investigated the(More)
Dopamine is a retinal neuromodulator that has been implicated in many aspects of retinal physiology. Photoreceptor cells express dopamine D4 receptors that regulate cAMP metabolism. To assess the effects of dopamine on photoreceptor physiology, we examined the morphology, electrophysiology, and regulation of cAMP metabolism in mice with targeted disruption(More)
Ultrastructural features of the retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor cells were studied in vitiligo (C57BL/6 mivit/mivit) mice. Eyes from 12-day- to 56-week-old animals were analysed. Abnormal photoreceptors were seen in 12-day-old mice. By 3 weeks malformed outer segments were evident in the posterior and equatorial retina, but normal(More)
Mature retinal rod photoreceptors sequester opsin in the disk and plasma membranes of the rod outer segment (ROS). Opsin is synthesized in the inner segment and is transferred to the outer segment along the connecting cilium that joins the two compartments. We have investigated early stages of retinal development during which the polarized distribution of(More)
Opsin mRNA levels, opsin synthetic rates and localization of opsin were studied throughout the photoreceptor's life span in the rds mice. Mutant mice 11 days to 11 months old were investigated. Opsin mRNA levels were studied by means of northern blot analysis. Opsin synthesis was measured by incorporation of [35S]methionine into newly synthesized opsin in(More)
The retinal degeneration slow or rds gene encodes rds/peripherin, an integral membrane glycoprotein in the outer segments of rod and cone photoreceptors. Mice homozygous for a null mutation in rds fail to develop outer segments and undergo subsequent degeneration of photoreceptors by the apoptotic pathway. Mutations in the human RDS gene are responsible for(More)
Opsin localization in photoreceptor plasma membrane was studied in 10- to 30-day-old dystrophic RCS rats. Preembedding cytochemical procedures with antiopsin antibodies and electron microscopy were employed. In the second postnatal week, opsin was sequestered to the outer segment plasma membrane in affected rat retinas. This distribution resembled that(More)
In dystrophic retinas of rds mice, which are devoid of photoreceptor outer segments, high steady state levels of dopamine were found in dark and light periods. These levels were similar to those observed in normal, BALB/c mouse retinas. Major differences were determined, however, between dopamine turnover in normal and dystrophic retinas. While substantial(More)
Arrestin localization was studied in BALB/c mice retinas during a 12-hr dark/light diurnal cycle and under various light/dark interruptions. Intracellular distribution of arrestin in photoreceptor cells was determined by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. During the light phase of the diurnal cycle, arrestin was localized mostly in the rod outer(More)