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Studies on the effects of marijuana smoking have evolved into the discovery and description of the endocannabinoid system. To date, this system is composed of two receptors, CB1 and CB2, and endogenous ligands including anandamide, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, and others. CB1 receptors and ligands are found in the brain as well as immune and other peripheral(More)
Six broad-host-range plasmid vectors were developed to study gene expression in Bartonella henselae. The vectors were used to express a beta-galactosidase reporter gene in B. henselae and to generate antisense RNA for gene knockdown. When applied to ompR, a putative transcription response regulator of B. henselae, this antisense RNA gene knockdown strategy(More)
We have reported that injection of marijuana cannabinoids, such as Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), into mice, followed by infection with Legionella pneumophila (Lp), suppresses the development of cell-mediated immunity T helper 1 (Th1) activity. These effects are accompanied by suppression of interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN) gamma production(More)
The primary polyphenol in green tea extract is the catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Various studies have shown significant suppressive effects of catechin on mammalian cells, either tumor or normal cells, including lymphoid cells. Previous studies from this laboratory reported that EGCG has marked suppressive activity on murine macrophages infected(More)
The progression of Legionella pneumophila infection in macrophages is controlled by the Lgn1 gene locus, which expresses the nonpermissive phenotype in cells from BALB/c mice but the permissive phenotype in cells from A/J mice. Activation of dendritic cells and macrophages by L. pneumophila is mediated by the pathogen recognition receptor Toll-like receptor(More)
Legionella pneumophila infection of mice induces proinflammatory cytokines and Th1 immunity as well as rapid increases in serum levels of IL-12 and IFNgamma and splenic IL-12Rbeta2 expression. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatment prior to infection causes a shift from Th1 to Th2 immunity and here we demonstrate that CB(1) and CB(2) cannabinoid(More)
Marijuana cannabinoids, such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinoid (THC), suppress type 1 T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity in a variety of models, including infection with the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila (Lp). To examine the cellular mechanism of this effect, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) were purified from BALB/c mice and studied(More)
T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-polarizing cytokines are induced by Legionella pneumophila infection and are suppressed by pretreatment with marijuana cannabinoids (CB). Glucocorticoids and prostaglandin E2(PGE2) are also reported to suppress Th1 polarization and are induced by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), so their role in the suppression of polarizing(More)
Bacillus anthracis produces lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET), and they suppress the function of LPS-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs). Because DCs respond differently to various microbial stimuli, we compared toxin effects in bone marrow DCs stimulated with either LPS or Legionella pneumophila (Lp). LT, not ET, was more toxic for cells from BALB/c than(More)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) injection suppresses serum interleukin-12 (IL-12) levels in Legionella pneumophila-infected mice. Dendritic cells are a major producer of IL-12 and mouse, bone marrow-derived dendritic cell cultures produced high levels of the IL-12p40 following L. pneumophila infection. Treatment with THC suppressed this cytokine response(More)