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Studies on the effects of marijuana smoking have evolved into the discovery and description of the endocannabinoid system. To date, this system is composed of two receptors, CB1 and CB2, and endogenous ligands including anandamide, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, and others. CB1 receptors and ligands are found in the brain as well as immune and other peripheral(More)
The progression of Legionella pneumophila infection in macrophages is controlled by the Lgn1 gene locus, which expresses the nonpermissive phenotype in cells from BALB/c mice but the permissive phenotype in cells from A/J mice. Activation of dendritic cells and macrophages by L. pneumophila is mediated by the pathogen recognition receptor Toll-like receptor(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) have a critical role in linking innate to adaptive immunity, and this transition is regulated by the up-regulation of costimulatory and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules as well as Toll-like receptors. These changes in DCs have been observed to occur following microbial infection, and in the present study, we examined(More)
Six broad-host-range plasmid vectors were developed to study gene expression in Bartonella henselae. The vectors were used to express a beta-galactosidase reporter gene in B. henselae and to generate antisense RNA for gene knockdown. When applied to ompR, a putative transcription response regulator of B. henselae, this antisense RNA gene knockdown strategy(More)
We have reported that injection of marijuana cannabinoids, such as Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), into mice, followed by infection with Legionella pneumophila (Lp), suppresses the development of cell-mediated immunity T helper 1 (Th1) activity. These effects are accompanied by suppression of interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN) gamma production(More)
The primary polyphenol in green tea extract is the catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Various studies have shown significant suppressive effects of catechin on mammalian cells, either tumor or normal cells, including lymphoid cells. Previous studies from this laboratory reported that EGCG has marked suppressive activity on murine macrophages infected(More)
T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-polarizing cytokines are induced by Legionella pneumophila infection and are suppressed by pretreatment with marijuana cannabinoids (CB). Glucocorticoids and prostaglandin E2(PGE2) are also reported to suppress Th1 polarization and are induced by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), so their role in the suppression of polarizing(More)
Legionella pneumophila infection of mice induces proinflammatory cytokines and Th1 immunity as well as rapid increases in serum levels of IL-12 and IFNγ and splenic IL-12Rβ2 expression. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatment prior to infection causes a shift from Th1 to Th2 immunity and here we demonstrate that CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors(More)
Marijuana cannabinoids, such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinoid (THC), suppress type 1 T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity in a variety of models, including infection with the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila (Lp). To examine the cellular mechanism of this effect, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) were purified from BALB/c mice and studied(More)
Some insecticides to control and prevent screw-worm fly strike by Chrysomya bezziana in calves and adult cattle were tested in field trials on cattle in Sabah, East Malaysia. Ivermectin injected subcutaneously in newborn calves at 200 mu/kg provided 10 days protection from screw-worm fly strike, which allowed navels to dry. Ivermectin, 1% dichlofenthion(More)