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The proteasome plays essential roles in nearly all biological processes in plant defense and development, yet simple methods for displaying proteasome activities in extracts and living tissues are not available to plant science. Here, we introduce an easy and robust method to simultaneously display the activities of all three catalytic proteasome subunits(More)
Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) are important cysteine proteases that are implicated in the maturation of seed storage proteins, and programmed cell death during plant-microbe interactions and development. Here, we introduce a specific, cell-permeable, activity-based probe for VPEs. This probe is highly specific for all four Arabidopsis VPEs, and(More)
Syringolin A (SylA) is a nonribosomal cyclic peptide produced by the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae that can inhibit the eukaryotic proteasome. The proteasome is a multisubunit proteolytic complex that resides in the nucleus and cytoplasm and contains three subunits with different catalytic activities: β1, β2, and β5. Here, we studied(More)
The ability to move from the primary infection site and colonize distant tissue in the leaf is an important property of bacterial plant pathogens, yet this aspect has hardly been investigated for model pathogens. Here we show that GFP-expressing Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae DC3000 that lacks the HopQ1-1 effector (PtoDC3000ΔhQ) has a strong capacity to(More)
Infection of plants by bacterial leaf pathogens at wound sites is common in nature. Plants defend wound sites to prevent pathogen invasion, but several pathogens can overcome spatial restriction and enter leaf tissues. The molecular mechanisms used by pathogens to suppress containment at wound infection sites are poorly understood. Here, we studied(More)
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