Izabela Schultz

Learn More
The development of procedures for assessing factors that contribute to pain and disability is crucial for clinical and epidemiologic studies. The present paper describes a system for in vivo, real-time assessment of pain behaviors integrated with a standardized physical examination for low back pain patients. The principles for measuring five categories of(More)
Several systems for measuring pain behaviour have been developed for clinical settings. The present study reports on a real-time system for coding five categories of pain behaviour for low-back pain patients: guarding, touching, sounds, words, and facial expression. Unique features of the system are the use of refined measures of facial expression and(More)
  • 1