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A radioimmunoassay is described for the measurement of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). The antibody was produced in rabbits by immunization with alpha-MSH coupled to bovine serum albumin with carbodiimide. The antibody did not react significantly with ACTH, beta-MSH, or 6 fragments of ACTH. The sensitivity and reliability of the assay were(More)
OBJECTIVE Enhanced endothelial permeability leading to intimal accumulation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) stimulates the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. Histamine is known to increase vascular permeability. Whether this affects the formation of atherosclerotic lesions, however, remains elusive. METHODS AND RESULTS Apolipoprotein E-null(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits thrombus formation, vascular contraction, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. We investigated whether NO release is enhanced after endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) gene transfer in atherosclerotic human carotid artery ex vivo. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that transduction enhanced eNOS expression; however,(More)
In vitro studies suggest a role for c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) in proatherogenic cellular processes. We show that atherosclerosis-prone ApoE-/- mice simultaneously lacking JNK2 (ApoE-/- JNK2-/- mice), but not ApoE-/- JNK1-/- mice, developed less atherosclerosis than do ApoE-/- mice. Pharmacological inhibition of JNK activity efficiently reduced plaque(More)
Local strategies directed against vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation such as drug-eluting stents reduce the occurrence of restenosis. However, these approaches may also inhibit endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and, thus, impair reendothelialization. We compared the effects of tacrolimus on human VSMC and EC proliferation and migration to(More)
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease characterized by accumulation of leukocytes in the arterial intima. Members of the selectin family of adhesion molecules are important mediators of leukocyte extravasation. However, it is unclear whether L-selectin (L-sel) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In the present study, mice deficient in(More)
BACKGROUND Cyclophilin A (CyPA) is a cytoplasmic protein secreted under inflammatory conditions. Extracellular CyPA is detected in atherosclerotic plaques and has been observed to activate endothelial cells as well as monocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS Commercially available recombinant CyPA-induced expression of tissue factor (TF) and vascular cell adhesion(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of aging on arterial thrombus formation by comparing 2-year-old with 11-week-old C57Bl6 mice. METHODS AND RESULTS Aging is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In humans, assessing the direct effects of aging on vascular homeostasis is difficult because it occurs in the presence of other risk factors. Arterial(More)
BACKGROUND This phase 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 agonist AQW051 in patients with Parkinson's disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesia. METHODS Patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and moderate to severe levodopa-induced dyskinesia were randomized(More)
AIMS Lectin-like oxLDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) mediates the uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in endothelial cells and macrophages. However, the different atherogenic potential of LOX-1-mediated endothelial and macrophage oxLDL uptake remains unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo role of endothelial LOX-1 in(More)