Iwao Watanabe

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Eighteen undergraduate students participated in two experiments which were designed to investigate the effects of noise letters upon selective identification of target letters. The reaction time of pressing buttons to the target letter was measured under various combinations of accompanying noise letters located 1 degree 48' apart from a target in visual(More)
Acetylene up to 500 μl l–1 did not affect methane formation in anoxic soil up to 12 h, but further incubation for 1 week showed strong inhibition of methanogenesis. To ascertain the extent of the oxidation of methane produced from rice-planted pots, the effect of acetylene on methane emission was studied. Two rice varieties (Toyohatamochi and Yamahikari)(More)
A spontaneous mutant ofAzospirillum lipoferum, resistant to streptomycin and rifampicin, was inoculated into the soil immediately before and 10 days after transplanting of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Two rice varieties with high and low nitrogen-fixing supporting traits, Hua-chou-chi-mo-mor (Hua) and OS4, were used for the plant bacterial interaction study. The(More)
To explain the mechanism of iron toxicity, greenhouse and growth chamber (14CO2 atmosphere) experiments were carried out. In pot experiments (with a typical iron-toxic soil and a fertile clay) we studied the effect of N, P, K and Ca+Mg fertilization (alone or in combination) on dehydrogenase activity, Fe++ formation, and the populations of iron-reducing(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of small-dose ketamine on the predicted effect-site concentration of propofol required for loss of consciousness (LOC) and Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) insertion. DESIGN Randomized, double-blinded study. SETTINGS Operating room. PATIENTS 50 ASA physical status 1 and 2 women scheduled for elective breast or(More)
A field experiment in concrete-based plots was conducted to estimate the contribution of N derived from air (Ndfa) or biological N2 fixation in Sesbania rostrata and S. cannabina (syn. S. aculeata), using various references, by the 15N dilution method. The two Sesbania species as N2-fixing reference plants and four aquatic weed species as non-N2-fixing(More)
Algal populations were quantified (as colony-forming units [CFU] per square centimetre) in 102 samples of rice soils from the Philippines, India, Malaysia and Portugal, and in 22 samples of soil-based inocula from four countries. Heterocystous blue-green algae (BGA) were present in all samples. Nostoc was the dominant genus in most samples, followed by(More)
Nitrogen-fixing activity associated with different wetland rice varieties was measured at various growth stages by an in situ acetylene reduction method after the activities of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) in the flood water and on the lower portion of the rice stem were eliminated. Nitrogen-fixing activities associated with rice varieties differed with(More)
Laboratory cultures, soil cultures, and natural samples of N2-fixing blue-green algae (BGA) from rice fields were analyzed for dry matter, ash, N, C, P, and a few other constituents. Results show a very large variability of the composition. Dry matter contents ranged from 0.28% to 13.6% (average 3.3%). Ash contents ranged from 15.6% to 71.3%. Nitrogen(More)
This paper summarizes recent achievements in exploiting new biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) systems in rice fields, improving their management, and integrating them into rice farming systems. The inoculation of cyanobacteria has been long recommended, but its effect is erratic and unpredictable. Azolla has a long history of use as a green manure, but a(More)