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During thymopoiesis, a unique program of gene expression promotes the development of CD4 regulatory T (T reg) cells. Although Foxp3 maintains a pattern of gene expression necessary for T reg cell function, other transcription factors are emerging as important determinants of T reg cell development. We show that the NF-kappaB transcription factor c-Rel is(More)
The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signalling pathway serves a crucial role in regulating the transcriptional responses of physiological processes that include cell division, cell survival, differentiation, immunity and inflammation. Here we outline studies using mouse models in which the core components of the NF-kappaB pathway, namely the IkappaB(More)
BACKGROUND The presence of an inflammatory infiltrate consisting of helper T cells and a dysregulated matrix metabolism leading to excessive deposition of collagen are two pathogenetic factors responsible for the developments of fibrosis and sclerosis in patients with systemic sclerosis. In previous studies, ultraviolet A1 (UVA1) radiation phototherapy was(More)
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a type of neutrophilic disorder with a chronic clinical course. Immunosuppressive agents have been used for its management. Among them, corticosteroid is known as the most effective. However, other immunosuppressants including cyclosporine A have been selected for patients with PG who were refractory to systemic steroids. Herein(More)
Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), a cutaneous form of lupus erythematosus, is characterized as atrophic and scaly erythema and the lesions are often refractory to a wide range of topical or systemic therapies. Herein, we present four cases of DLE that were successfully treated with topical tacrolimus. Tacrolimus ointment (0.1%) was applied to DLE lesions(More)
Activation and maturation of dendritic cells (DC) are crucial for the establishment of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). However, antigen presentation by immature DC (iDC) might lead to antigen-specific peripheral tolerance. NF-kappaB plays significant roles in upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines in DC and therefore we investigated(More)
The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) plays a critical role in regulating expression of genes responsible for a wide range of cellular processes, including innate and adoptive immune responses, and pathways related to cell survival and proliferation. Based on its property as a transcription factor, NF-kappaB has been considered as a good target for the(More)
Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare multisystem condition in which developmental defects of the skin are associated with ocular, dental and skeletal abnormalities. Herein, we report an 8-year-old girl with FDH. Her body halves were asymmetric and she had linear cutaneous atrophy with yellow nodules on her extremities. Syndactylies of the third and(More)
Activation of dendritic cells (DC) is crucial for priming of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), which have a critical role in tumor immunity, and it is considered that adjuvants are necessary for activation of DC and for enhancement of cellular immunity. In this study, we examined an adjuvant capacity of recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB), which is(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) have a key role in inducing an immune response, but DC in different maturation states are responsible for inducing tolerance. Topical application of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) induces antigen-specific peripheral tolerance in delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to ovalbumin (OVA) by expanding(More)