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At early stages of the mammalian visual cortex, neurons with similar stimulus selectivities are vertically arrayed through the thickness of the cortical sheet and clustered in patches or bands across the surface. This organization, referred to as a 'column', has been found with respect to one-dimensional stimulus parameters such as orientation of stimulus(More)
1. Object vision is largely invariant to changes of retinal images of objects in size and position. To reveal neuronal mechanisms of this invariance, we recorded activities from single cells in the anterior part of the inferotemporal cortex (anterior IT), determined the critical features for the activation of individual cells, and examined the effects of(More)
Cells in the anterior part of the inferotemporal cortex (anterior IT) respond to moderately complex stimulus features of object images. To study dependency of their responses on contrast polarity of stimulus images, we selected cells with optimal stimuli that were defined only by shape and not related to texture or color, and examined effects of reversing(More)
The protective role of metallothionein (MT) against the myocardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity of doxorubicin (Dox) was investigated in mice. Dox-induced elevations of plasma creatine kinase activity, a measure of myocardiac damage, and plasma glutamate pyruvate transaminase activity, reflecting hepatic damage, were prevented by pretreatment with an MT(More)
To overcome technical difficulties associated with in vivo intraretinal recordings of cat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with multiple-barreled electrodes, we developed a new guide-trocar system that consisted of a small-diameter and large-diameter pipes. We also improved the method to construct tungsten-in-glass multiple-barreled electrodes suitable for(More)
OBJECTIVES Multineuronal spike trains must be efficiently decoded in order to utilize them for controlling artificial limbs and organs. Here we evaluated the efficiency of pooling (averaging) and combining (vectorizing) activities of multiple neurons for decoding neuronal information. METHODS Multineuronal activities in the monkey inferior temporal (IT)(More)
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