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Fluorophores that are fixed during image acquisition produce a diffraction pattern that is characteristic of the orientation of the fluorophore's underlying dipole. Fluorescence localization microscopy techniques such as PALM and STORM achieve super-resolution by applying Gaussian-based fitting algorithms to in-focus images of individual fluorophores; when(More)
High Resolution Interference Microscopy (HRIM) is a technique that allows the characterization of amplitude and phase of electromagnetic wave-fields in the far-field with a spatial accuracy that corresponds to a few nanometers in the object plane. Emphasis is put on the precise determination of topological features in the wave-field, called phase(More)
The measurement of tissue and cell oxygenation is important for understanding cell metabolism. We have addressed this problem with a novel optical technique, called triplet imaging, that exploits oxygen-induced triplet lifetime changes and is compatible with a variety of fluorophores. A modulated excitation of varying pulse widths allows the extraction of(More)
We show nanometer-level localization accuracy of a single quantum-dot in three dimensions by self-interference and diffraction-pattern analysis. We believe that this approach has the capacity to push optical microscopy to the molecular level. The use of fluorescence light for far-field imaging at the nanometer scale has recently drawn much attention(More)
The diffusion of charged proteins in liquid-filled nanometer-sized apertures with charged surfaces has been investigated with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Based on a two-dimensional (2D) multicomponent diffusion model, key parameters such as the number of molecules diffusing freely inside the nanochannel or interacting with the surfaces,(More)
Fluorescence localization microscopy (i.e., PALM, STORM) has enabled optical imaging at nanometer-scale resolutions. The localization algorithms used in these techniques rely on fitting a 2-D Gaussian to the in-focus image of individual fluorophores. For fixed fluorophores, however, the observed diffraction pattern depends on the orientation of the(More)
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