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Previous studies have demonstrated expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in human cerebral meningiomas. However, the activation status of the EGFRs and whether they activate cytoplasmic mitogenic signaling pathways are not known. In this study, using Northern blot analysis and the polymerase chain reaction, the authors report expression of(More)
X chromosome inactivation is the silencing mechanism eutherian mammals use to equalize the expression of X-linked genes between males and females early in embryonic development. In the mouse, genetic control of inactivation requires elements within the X inactivation center (Xic) on the X chromosome that influence the choice of which X chromosome is to be(More)
Radiation has been considered a relative contraindication to prosthetic breast reconstruction. While this dogma has been challenged by recent reports, the data on radiation and immediate prosthetic reconstruction remain contradictory. We performed a controlled retrospective review of one surgeon's 7-year experience with 21 irradiated patients who underwent(More)
The mammalian epigenetic phenomena of X inactivation and genomic imprinting are incompletely understood. X inactivation equalizes X-linked expression between males and females by silencing genes on one X chromosome during female embryogenesis. Genomic imprinting functionally distinguishes the parental genomes, resulting in parent-specific monoallelic(More)
BACKGROUND There are numerous methods of assessing patient satisfaction with botulinum toxin type A neuromodulation of the glabellar rhytids. As the use of aesthetic neuromodulation increases both in breadth and number of procedures, there is a need for more comprehensive tools to evaluate patient-reported outcomes. The FACE-Q is a recently validated(More)
LEARNING OBJECTIVES The reader is presumed to have a broad understanding of plastic surgical procedures and concepts. After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the current clinical applications and limitations of autologous fat grafting. 2. Identify the important physiological steps and molecular pathways of(More)
Fat grafting is a common reconstructive and aesthetic procedure with extensive clinical applications. Recently, significant strides have been made in investigating the biology behind the success of this procedure. Surgeons and scientists alike have advanced this field by innovating fat graft harvesting and injection techniques, expanding the use of adipose(More)
LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this article and watching the accompanying videos, the participant should be able to: 1. Assess patients seeking facial volumization and correlate volume deficiencies anatomically. 2. Identify appropriate fillers based on rheologic properties and anatomical needs. 3. Recognize poor candidates for facial volumization. 4.(More)