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IL-17-producing T lymphocytes have been recently shown to comprise a distinct lineage of proinflammatory T helper cells, termed Th17 cells, that are major contributors to autoimmune disease. We show here that the orphan nuclear receptor RORgammat is the key transcription factor that orchestrates the differentiation of this effector cell lineage. RORgammat(More)
The gastrointestinal tract of mammals is inhabited by hundreds of distinct species of commensal microorganisms that exist in a mutualistic relationship with the host. How commensal microbiota influence the host immune system is poorly understood. We show here that colonization of the small intestine of mice with a single commensal microbe, segmented(More)
The interleukin (IL) 17 family of cytokines has emerged to be critical for host defense as well as the pathogenesis of autoimmune and autoinflammatory disorders, and serves to link adaptive and innate responses. Recent studies have identified a new subset of T cells that selectively produce IL-17 (Th17 cells; Bettelli, E., T. Korn, and V.K. Kuchroo. 2007.(More)
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) acts as a biologically essential processivity factor that encircles DNA and provides binding sites for polymerase, flap endonuclease-1 (FEN-1) and ligase during DNA replication and repair. We have computationally characterized the interactions of human and Archaeoglobus fulgidus PCNA trimer with double-stranded DNA(More)
Intestinal Th17 cells are induced and accumulate in response to colonization with a subgroup of intestinal microbes such as segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) and certain extracellular pathogens. Here, we show that adhesion of microbes to intestinal epithelial cells (ECs) is a critical cue for Th17 induction. Upon monocolonization of germ-free mice or(More)
GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) are ligand gated chloride ion channels that mediate overall inhibitory signaling in the CNS. A detailed understanding of their structure is important to gain insights in, e.g., ligand binding and functional properties of this pharmaceutically important target. Homology modeling is a necessary tool in this regard because(More)
Endonuclease IV belongs to a class of important apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases involved in DNA repair. Although a structure-based mechanistic hypothesis has been put forth for this enzyme, the detailed catalytic mechanism has remained unknown. Using thermodynamic integration in the context of ab initio quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics molecular(More)
We explore the conformational dynamics of a homology model of the human alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor using molecular dynamics simulation and analyses of root mean-square fluctuations, block partitioning of segmental motion, and principal component analysis. The results reveal flexible regions and concerted global motions of the subunits(More)
Molecular dynamics results are presented for a coarse-grain model of 1,2-di-n-alkanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, water, and a capped cylindrical model of a transmembrane peptide. We first demonstrate that different alkanoyl-length lipids are miscible in the liquid-disordered lamellar (Lalpha) phase. The transmembrane peptide is constructed of hydrophobic(More)
Tyrosine and glycine constitute 40% of complementarity determining region 3 of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (CDR-H3), the center of the classic antigen-binding site. To assess the role of D(H) RF1-encoded tyrosine and glycine in regulating CDR-H3 content and potentially influencing B cell function, we created mice limited to a single D(H) encoding(More)