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BACKGROUND Arsenic (As) toxicity is primarily based on its chemical speciation. Although inorganic and methylated As species are well characterized in terms of metabolism and formation in the human body, the origin of thiolated methylarsenicals is still unclear. OBJECTIVES We sought to determine whether sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from the human gut(More)
The anammox bacteria were enriched from reject water of anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater sludge onto moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system carriers—the ones initially containing no biomass (MBBR1) as well as the ones containing nitrifying biomass (MBBR2). Duration of start-up periods of the both reactors was similar (about 100 days), but(More)
After sulfate-reducing ammonium oxidation (SRAO) was first assumed in 2001, several works have been published describing this process in laboratory-scale bioreactors or occurring in the nature. In this paper, the SRAO process was performed using reject water as a substrate for microorganisms and a source of NH4 +, with SO4 2− being added as an electron(More)
In biological nitrogen removal, application of the autotrophic anammox process is gaining ground worldwide. Although this field has been widely researched in last years, some aspects as the accelerating effect of putative intermediates (mainly N2H4 and NH2OH) need more specific investigation. In the current study, experiments in a moving bed biofilm reactor(More)
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