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OBJECTIVE To assess whether polymorphisms in the dopamine receptor genes and in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT ) are predictors of adverse effects of L -dopa. METHODS A retrospective noninterventional study with 183 patients with PD was conducted. Nine polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2 ), two of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3 ), three of(More)
The role of hereditary polymorphisms of the arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) gene in the etiology of urinary bladder cancer is controversial. NAT1 is expressed in the urothelium and may O-acetylate hydroxyl amines, particularly in subjects with low NAT2 activity. Thus, NAT1 polymorphisms may affect the individual bladder cancer risk by interacting(More)
Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) plays a key role in the metabolism of carcinogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and metabolites to ultimate carcinogens. Three human allelic variants, namely wild-type (CYP1A1.1), CYP1A1.2 (I462V) and CYP1A1.4 (T461N), were coexpressed by coinfection of baculovirus-infected insect cells with human NADPH-P450 reductase. These(More)
The analgesic drug tramadol is bioactivated by CYP2D6 to the opioid receptor agonist O-desmethyltramadol. Case reports indicated that carriers of the CYP2D6 gene duplication may be at high risk for opioid adverse events. However, the effects of the CYP2D6 duplication on kinetics and dynamics of tramadol have not been systematically studied. Pharmacokinetics(More)
Genetic factors contribute to the phenotype of drug response. We systematically analyzed all available pharmacogenetic data from Medline databases (1970-2003) on the impact that genetic polymorphisms have on positive and adverse reactions to antidepressants and antipsychotics. Additionally, dose adjustments that would compensate for genetically caused(More)
Extracts of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) are used in treatment of depression. They contain various substances with the naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin as characteristic ingredients. These compounds were shown to cause phototoxicity in cell culture and in animals. A placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial with monitoring of(More)
Extrapyramidal adverse symptoms (EPS) represent a major type of adverse events in treatment with typical antipsychotic drugs which share high affinity to the dopamine D(2) receptor (DRD2). Genetic variants of this receptor may modulate the therapeutic response and the severity of adverse symptoms of antipsychotics. We analyzed nine known polymorphisms of(More)
OBJECTIVE This review aimed to provide distinct dose recommendations for antidepressants based on the genotypes of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. This approach may be a useful complementation to clinical monitoring and therapeutic drug monitoring. METHOD Our literature search covered 32 antidepressants marketed in Europe, Canada, and the(More)
BACKGROUND This study investigated the effect of St John's wort (SJW) extract on the pharmacokinetics of the immunosuppressants tacrolimus (TAC) and mycophenolic acid (MPA). METHODS Ten stable renal transplant patients received 600 mg SJW extract for 14 days in addition to their regular regimen of TAC and mycophenolate mofetil. RESULTS Dose-corrected(More)
Extracts of St. John's wort ( Hypericum perforatum ) became increasingly popular as easily available remedies for mild to moderate depression. Comedication with hypericum extract was recently shown to drastically reduce plasma concentration of ciclosporin, digoxin, and indinavir. We investigated the possible interaction of hypericum extract LI160 with(More)