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—Spoofing attacks are one of the security traits that biometric recognition systems are proven to be vulnerable to. When spoofed, a biometric recognition system is bypassed by presenting a copy of the biometric evidence of a valid user. Among all biometric modalities, spoofing a face recognition system is particularly easy to perform: all that is needed is(More)
Besides the recognition task, today's biometric systems need to cope with additional problem: spoofing attacks. Up to date, academic research considers spoofing as a binary classification problem: systems are trained to discriminate between real accesses and attacks. However, spoofing countermeasures are not designated to operate stand-alone, but as a part(More)
As a crucial security problem, anti-spoofing in biomet-rics, and particularly for the face modality, has achieved great progress in the recent years. Still, new threats arrive in form of better, more realistic and more sophisticated spoofing attacks. The objective of the 2nd Competition on Counter Measures to 2D Face Spoofing Attacks is to challenge(More)
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