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INTRODUCTION Our understanding of septic acute kidney injury (AKI) remains incomplete. A fundamental step is the use of animal models designed to meet the criteria of human sepsis. Therefore, we dynamically assessed renal haemodynamic, microvascular and metabolic responses to, and ultrastructural sequelae of, sepsis in a porcine model of faecal(More)
To study gas exchange in the filter during continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), an air-tight heated mixing chamber with adjustable CO2 supply was constructed and connected to a CVVHDF monitor. Bicarbonate-free crystalloid (Part 1) and packed red blood cell (Part 2) solutions were circulated at 150 ml x min(-1). Gas exchange expressed as(More)
In recent two years, a global spread of NDM-type metallo-beta-lactamase-producing bacteria has been observed. NDM enzymes are mainly produced by Enterobacteriaceae, but have also been detected in Acinetobacter baumannii and Vibrio spp. as well (Tzouvelekis et al. 2012; Walsh et al. 2011). Two cases of the new variant, NDM-4, have been recently described in(More)
BACKGROUND This study evaluated the effects of protocol-guided fluid loading on extravascular lung water (EVLW) and hemodynamics in a group of patients at high risk for volume expansion-induced pulmonary and systemic edema. METHODS Nine acutely admitted septic patients with acute lung injury (ALI) were prospectively studied. In addition to sepsis and ALI,(More)
INTRODUCTION In almost half of all sepsis patients, acute kidney injury (AKI) develops. However, the pathobiologic differences between sepsis patients with and without AKI are only poorly understood. We used a unique opportunity to examine dynamic inflammatory, renal hemodynamic, and microvascular changes in two clinically relevant large-animal models of(More)
OBJECTIVES Pretreatment with tempol, a membrane-permeable radical scavenger, has been shown to be protective in rodent models of endotoxic and Gram-positive shock. However, neither the pretreatment design nor hypodynamic endotoxic shock in rodents mimics the clinical scenario. Therefore, we investigated the effects of tempol in a posttreatment model of(More)
Complex interactions of nitric oxide and other free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis and organ dysfunction. We hypothesized that simultaneous inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition (L-N6-[1-iminoethyl]-lysine [L-NIL]) and neutralization of superoxide (O2-) (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl [Tempol]) would protect(More)
OBJECTIVE To hypothesize that reduced L-type calcium current with consequent shortening of cardiac repolarization is present in a clinically relevant porcine model of hyperdynamic septic shock. Myocardial depression is a well-recognized manifestation of sepsis and septic shock. Reduction of L-type calcium current was demonstrated to contribute to the(More)
We have recently demonstrated that selective inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) inhibition with 1400W attenuated the hemodynamic and metabolic alterations affiliated with hyperdynamic porcine endotoxemia. In contrast to endotoxemia, limited evidence is available to document a relationship between NO and organ dysfunction in large animal bacteremic(More)