Ivan M Williams

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Aeration of the lung and the transition to air-breathing at birth is fundamental to mammalian life and initiates major changes in cardiopulmonary physiology. However, the dynamics of this process and the factors involved are largely unknown, because it has not been possible to observe or measure lung aeration on a breath-by-breath basis. We have used the(More)
PURPOSE On 1 July 2012, the Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS) released its Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeter (OSLD) Level I audit, replacing the previous TLD based audit. The aim of this work is to present the results from this new service and the complete uncertainty analysis on which the audit tolerances are based. METHODS The audit(More)
The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, ACDS, is a voluntary national auditing service for radiotherapy centers. Provided free of charge the ACDS is now little over one and a half years old. While an independent audit service has been desired by the radiotherapy professions, (Radiation Oncology, Medical Physics and Radiotherapy) for a few decades, the(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this investigation was to assess the angular dependence of a commercial optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) dosimetry system in MV x-ray beams at depths beyond d(max) and to find ways to mitigate this dependence for measurements in phantoms. METHODS Two special holders were designed which allow a dosimeter to be(More)
Anatomical visualization of airspace-containing organs in intact small animals has been limited by the resolution and contrast available from current imaging methods such as X-ray, micro-computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Determining structural relationships and detailed anatomy has therefore relied on suitable fixation, sectioning and(More)
This work presents the Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service's (ACDS) findings of an investigation of systematic discrepancies between treatment planning system (TPS) calculated and measured audit doses. Specifically, a comparison between the Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA) and other common dose-calculation algorithms in regions downstream (≥2cm) from(More)
Many important dosimetry audit networks for radiotherapy have their roots in clinical trial quality assurance (QA). In both scenarios it is essential to test two issues: does the treatment plan conform with the clinical requirements and is the plan a reasonable representation of what is actually delivered to a patient throughout their course of treatment.(More)
The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS) has demonstrated the capacity to perform a basic dosimetry audit on all radiotherapy clinics across Australia. During the ACDS’s three and a half year trial the majority of the audits were performed using optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLD) mailed to facilities for exposure to a reference(More)
PURPOSE The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS) has implemented a new method of a nonreference condition Level II type dosimetric audit of radiotherapy services to increase measurement accuracy and patient safety within Australia. The aim of this work is to describe the methodology, tolerances, and outcomes from the new audit. METHODS The ACDS(More)
In February 2011, the Australian Government launched the Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS) a three year trial of an independent dosimetric auditing service for Australia. The ACDS has designed and implemented a three level audit program, each succeeding level with a more complex and challenging geometry. It is similar to other audit programs(More)